1400 Washington AveAlbanyNY
1400 Washington AveAlbanyNY

M. Watt Espy Papers

1730-2008

Processed and encoded with the generous support of the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.

PDF Version

Abstract

The M. Watt Espy papers chronicle the extensive research efforts that led to the creation of the Capital Punishment Research Project and the database known as the Espy File. Espy spent three decades gathering and indexing documentation of legal executions in the United States. His papers contain both primary and secondary sources used to catalog thousands of instances of capital punishment in the United States and its territories since the 1600s. The collection includes material from corrections records, newspapers, county histories, legal proceedings, and books. In addition to the records pertaining specifically to the death penalty, there is also a selection of magazines collected by Espy that cover true crime stories as well as life in the American Old West.

Summary

Creator:
Espy, M. Watt, 1933-2009
Date Coverage:
1730-2008
Quantity:
90.0 cubic ft.

M. Watt Espy, Jr. (1933-2009) was widely recognized as one of the foremost historians of legal executions in the United States. Beginning with his own personal resources, in May 1970, Espy began the first serious quest to chronicle and document more than 15,000 government-sanctioned executions in the United States since 1608—an effort that formally became the Capital Punishment Research Project. His method was to collect information by obtaining state Department of Corrections records, newspapers, published and unpublished county histories, proceedings of state and local courts, magazines, and holdings of historical societies, libraries, museums, and archives.

Initially Espy accumulated and recorded information about executions in the United States from his home in Headland, Alabama as a part-time pursuit while working in sales. Between 1977 and 1985, however, the University of Alabama Law Center in Tuscaloosa hired Espy to continue his work and during this time he published “Capital Punishment and Deterrence: What the Statistics Cannot Show”, Crime & Delinquency, (Vol. 26, No. 4, 537-544 (1980). He also wrote numerous opinion editorials and histories of the death penalty for major daily newspapers, including the Los Angeles Times, The Atlanta Constitution, The Virginian-Pilot, The Columbus Dispatch, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and The Nashville Tennessean, throughout the 1980s. In 1984, the National Science Foundation awarded a grant to support the preparation of a comprehensive computer database with Espy’s exhaustive research as its foundation.

In 1987, that database became a reality when the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) published a dataset, Executions in the United States, 1608-1987: The Espy File (ICPSR 51). The portable data file furnishes information on executions performed under civil authority in the United States between 1608 and July 6, 1987, and describes each individual executed and the circumstances surrounding the crime for which the person was convicted. Variables include age, race, name, occupation, and sex of the individual; date, jurisdiction, place, and method of execution; and the crime committed. Also recorded is whether the only evidence for the execution was official records indicating that an executioner or slave owner received compensated for an execution. The Espy File was subsequently updated to include executions through 2002.

The Espy File is based on several ledgers that Espy used to confirm an execution. In one ledger, he arranged executions alphabetically by state and then in chronological order. Espy recorded the name, race, age and occupation of the offender, county of conviction, crime, date and method of execution. A second ledger contained the same cases listed chronologically, beginning with 1608. Espy included just the name of the individual, the crime, and date, location, and method of execution. A third, and much smaller ledger, also is arranged by year and contains post-Furman executions beginning in 1986. There is also a page for new confirmations from nineteenth and earlier twentieth century dates.

Espy’s work went beyond simply tallying the total number of executions. Instead he passionately researched and gathered all available background information on those executed, writing detailed note cards, narratives, and the ledger entries, which are all included in the collection. He painstakingly sought confirmation that officials carried out even the most obscure death sentences. Espy innovatively utilized antebellum state and county warrant records outlining compensation for executed slaves in his research. He explored the lesser known area of juvenile executions, documenting cases where children and teenagers received death sentences. Espy chronicled gruesome capital punishments for participants in slave rebellions during the colonial period. In addition, he uncovered botched executions where law enforcement hanged or electrocuted the same man more than once to complete the death sentence. As a further indication of his all-consuming interest in researching capital punishment, Espy filled the walls of his home with photographs of individuals executed.

Although he attended the University of Alabama for two years following service in the United States Navy during the Korean War, Espy never received a college degree. However, through his work, he earned the respect and admiration of academics, advocacy groups, and members of the general public. In 1991 the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty honored Espy with a special award at its annual meeting. His professional relationships with noted death penalty abolitionists, sociologists, criminal justice professors, authors, lawyers, members of Congress, and advocacy group executives are detailed in his correspondence. This group includes such notables as former director of the American Civil Liberties Union Capital Punishment Project Henry Scharwzchild and leading experts on capital punishment Dr. Hugo Bedau, and Dr. Michael Radelet, who once commented that “’[Espy] is widely recognized by everyone in the academic world as America’s foremost death penalty historian." (Ronald Smothers, “Headland Journal; Historian's Death Penalty Obsession,” The New York Times, October 21, 1987.) Letters describe how public defender offices and defense attorneys hired Espy to research past crimes and executions as part of mounting a defense in capital cases. Prisoners exchanged correspondence with him for insights gleaned from his work and moral support. (Series 5: Correspondence).

Following his affiliation with the University of Alabama Law Center, Espy continued to research and document executions, write, consult, and lecture from his home base in Headland until his death in August 2009.

The M. Watt Espy Papers document more than three decades of research from the nationally recognized expert on legal executions in the United States. Beginning as a macabre hobby in 1970, M. Watt Espy, Jr. began chronicling tens of thousands of government-sanctioned capital punishment sentences from the colonial period until the present day. His solitary hobby eventually became an all-consuming passion and he embarked upon a full-time career as the commanding force behind the Capital Punishment Research Project.

In 1987, The New York Times profiled Espy, his work and his “death penalty obsession” stating: “By all accounts Watt Espy’s collection is as unique as he is eccentric.” This statement remains an accurate description of Espy’s materials and the death penalty researcher himself. The collection includes Espy's vast documentation of executions in America, including a series of typed index cards listing individuals executed. Espy’s method was to collect information by obtaining state Department of Corrections records, newspaper articles, published and unpublished county histories, proceedings of state and local courts, magazines, and holdings of historical societies, libraries, museums, and archives. In addition, there is aggregated research data, administrative files, general subject research and notes, professional correspondence, news articles about or citing Espy, statements to the media, copies of his published and unpublished writings (including numerous opinion editorials), texts of speeches and testimonials before government panels, a personal signed portrait and autograph collection, scholarly works by others writing in the fields of history, crime, capital punishment, and the legal system, materials from advocacy organizations, photographs of individuals executed, and true crime, penitentiary, and general interest publications and books. Although the materials in the collection include eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century dates of creation, please note many of these items are photocopies of originals.

The collection also documents Espy’s research and thought process over the course of more than three decades. Espy’s materials illustrate the shift of research methodologies of the 1970s and 1980s through the twenty-first century. While he began by spending countless hours typing up correspondence to libraries, archives and historical societies, and scouring microfilm, the later portions of the collection include e-mail correspondence and news articles culled from the Internet. Of note, Espy rejected his earlier beliefs favoring capital punishment and over time became a critic of executions, arguing they did not deter future criminal acts and objecting to the number of individuals executed who were not guilty.

The collection is organized into the following series:

Most of the series in the Watt Espy Papers are arranged in alphabetical order, namely the Capital Punishment Research Project, subject files, biographical materials, writings by others, and advocacy. The index card files are arranged alphabetically by state, then alphabetically by person's name within each state. Documentation of executions are arranged in subseries based on Espy's own categorization: the 50 states/District of Columbia/territories, federal, military, Native American tribal, and international. Correspondence is subdivided into regular communication/people of prominence and general communication, then is alphabetical within those two groups. Publications are alphabetical by title, then chronological within each title.

All items in the M. Watt Espy Papers were donated by Mr. Espy or his heirs to the University Libraries, M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, between 2008 and 2011.

Processed by: Jodi Boyle and Kerry Lynch

Collection record created by: This finding aid was produced using ArchivesSpace on

Published: 2017-04-14 11:45:27 -0400

Encoded in EAD by Jodi Boyle, 2011

Archival materials can be view in-person during business hours in our reading room, located on the top floor of the Science Library on the Uptown Campus.

We can also deliver digital scans for remote research for a fee.

Access to this record group is unrestricted.

Copyright Statement

The researcher assumes full responsibility for conforming with the laws of copyright. Whenever possible, the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives will provide information about copyright owners and other restrictions, but the legal determination ultimately rests with the researcher. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be discussed with the Head of Special Collections and Archives.

Preferred citation for this material is as follows:

Identification of specific item, series, box, folder, M. Watt Espy Papers, 1730-2008. M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, University at Albany, State University of New York (hereafter referred to as the Espy Papers).

Contents of Collection

Quantity: 2.8 cubic ft.

Arranged alphabetically by state/territory, then alphabetically by person's name within categories such as "1-2 people executed", "3+ people executed", "Executions-- anonymous", etc.

Watt Espy kept a series of index cards, grouped mainly by state, that records information about executions on American soil (colonies, states, territories) since the 1600s. Some cards contain lots of information, including name, place of execution, method, and details of the crime. Other cards have very little information aside from the fact that someone was executed. Sometimes there is not even a name—just “two slaves” or “pirate”. There are additional categories for federal, military, and Indian tribal executions. There are two different card sizes; for the 3x5 inch cards, each state, territory, or other main division is identified with a manila tab. Subdivisions are marked with blue, unlined cards and are intended to mirror the arrangement of materials in Series #2 as closely as possible.

In addition to Espy’s numerous 3x5 inch cards, there is also an assortment of 4x6 inch cards used in cases where Espy continued information for prisoners who had lengthy and/or unusual details regarding their crimes and punishments. Nearly every state is featured in this category, as well as Guam, Indian tribal, military, and federal executions. Since Espy did not have surplus information to match every 3x5 card, the 4x6 cards are a much smaller group. Researchers will know when to refer to the larger index cards because Espy noted “see large card” on the 3x5 size where appropriate. The 4x6 cards do not have any subdivisions and are arranged alphabetically by state, then alphabetically by prisoner name within each state.

Special notes for 3x5 index cards:

1. Slave states of the South, as well as colonial states of the North, usually have an extra category of cards: compensation paid to owners whose slaves were executed for crimes. Espy was the first researcher to track that information. However, cards showing compensation paid to sheriffs for carrying out executions are not separated into their own group.

2. Espy marked certain cards “unconfirmed” if he did not have sufficient evidence that an execution was carried out. Other cards indicate that an individual (or individuals) received a death sentence, but there is neither an “unconfirmed” notation nor date of death. Those cards have been categorized by the archivist as additional unconfirmed executions.

3. Researchers might want to search more than one category within a state, because some executions fit more than one description. Ex. “Female slave” executed 1858 whose owner was paid $400 would fit the categories of anonymous executions and slave owner compensations, but would only be filed in the latter. Ex. #2: “Man and Woman” possibly hanged in Kentucky, 1820s—would be filed in unconfirmed executions, not the anonymous group.

4. Card files include military executions and lynchings although neither were a main focus of Espy’s research.

5. Cards that name 3 or more individuals executed are in order by whoever’s name would properly be first alphabetically, even if Espy did not list that person’s name first. Ex: Dennis Igoe, James Johnson, and Joseph Frampton- Frampton is first alphabetically and is filed as such although his name is listed last on Espy’s index card.

6. Many of the 3x5 card subdivisions identified by blue cards are organized alphabetically, but due to time constraints, the slave owner compensation categories are not alphabetized.

BoxFolderContentsDate

8be0e1de7701331de249f0bd14bd6294

Card-File 1Index cards, Alabama to ArkansasUndated

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Card-File 2Index cards, Arkansas to ColoradoUndated

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Card-File 3Index cards, Connecticut to FloridaUndated

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Card-File 4Index cards, GeorgiaUndated

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Card-File 5Index cards, Georgia to KentuckyUndated

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Card-File 6Index cards, Kentucky to LouisianaUndated

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Card-File 7Index cards, Louisiana to MassachusettsUndated

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Card-File 8Index cards, Massachusetts to MississippiUndated

b39a1a653199e144a418a163dbc07f8c

Card-File 9Index cards, Mississippi to NebraskaUndated

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Card-File 10Index cards, Nevada to New YorkUndated

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Card-File 11Index cards, New York to North CarolinaUndated

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Card-File 12Index cards, North Carolina to OhioUndated

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Card-File 13Index cards, Ohio to PennsylvaniaUndated

ef829086e627cf30e148afb0bfcad5ac

Card-File 14Index cards, Pennsylvania to South DakotaUndated

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Card-File 15Index cards, Tennessee to TexasUndated

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Card-File 16Index cards, Texas to VirginiaUndated

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Card-File 17Index cards, VirginiaUndated

6aff0bfad41baa2d299eb20aeb656e7f

Card-File 18Index cards, Virgina to Wyoming, also "Special" cardsUndated

f0853bfb698f764f09ba0a9293d8c585

Card-File 19Index cards (4x6), Alabama to IowaUndated

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Card-File 20Index cards (4x6), Kansas to OhioUndated

0774223c8c8b07c8ab083bda17becadd

Card-File 21Index cards (4x6), Ohio to WyomingUndated
Quantity:  44.5 cu. ft.

Arranged alphabetically within subseries.

This series comprises the bulk of Watt Espy’s primary and secondary research and is therefore the largest in the collection. Initially, approximately half of these documentation of execution records were arranged in an organized fashion alphabetically by state, or by federal, military, tribal or international categories and then alphabetically by an individual’s name. The others were not arranged in any discernable scheme with a significant amount of materials kept as unorganized loose documents in boxes. Espy marked some files as "not written up," but it was ultimately unclear how these differed from other records. After careful review, the archivists decided to combine all of the documentation of executions together, divided the records into five subseries for executions conducted by all 50 states and the District of Columbia, federal executions, military executions, Native American tribal executions, and international executions, and subsequently arranged and inter-filed all the loose materials.

This series consists of state Department of Corrections records, newspapers, published and unpublished state and county histories, proceedings of state and local courts, magazines, holdings of historical societies, libraries, museums, and archives, notes taken by Espy or others conducting research, lists of individuals executed by state or county, annotated photocopies of Espy’s index card files, and documentation of executions sent via correspondence. The amount of material varies greatly by individual. Individuals are referred to by last name or, in the absence of a surname, by their given name. In general, date ranges for this series are not inclusive. Although the folders include eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century dates of creation, please note many of these items are photocopies of originals that Espy utilized for his research.

In addition, Espy frequently grouped together materials for individuals executed for the same crime or executed on the same day for different crimes. Therefore he often had only one set of records for two people executed for the same crime. The archivists filed these records under the name of the individual whose last name or given name was alphabetically first.

The respective volumes of aggregated material suggest Espy focused heavily on U.S. state and federal executions, and not military, tribal or international ones. The state subseries is the largest of the five and documents executions in the United States by state or in the District of Columbia. It also includes executions in colonies or territories that later became states. The files are arranged alphabetically by state and then alphabetically by the last name of the individual executed when one or two people received the death penalty. Next are files containing references to multiple executions, three or more individuals executed on the same day or for conviction of the same crime; anonymous individuals executed, such as a “slave woman” or “pirate man;” city, county, state, or regional records and histories, and lists of individuals executed; and unconfirmed or possible executions. At the end of this subseries are files with lists or records of individuals executed from multiple states. For instance, a list of juveniles or innocents executed from more than one state or executions from other states listed in Maryland newspapers.

The federal, military and Native American tribal subseries follow the same arrangement scheme. The files are organized alphabetically by the last name of the individual executed when one or two people received the death penalty. Following are files containing references to multiple executions, lists of individuals executed, and then unconfirmed executions.

The international subseries is arranged alphabetically by country and then by an individual’s last name. There are less than fifteen countries and one U.S. territory mentioned.

BoxFolderContentsDate

1fec1cf37691c49fbff444cff78ec997

1 1Alabama, A-B1835-1998, Undated

de8ef4b39743a606614daaf58959f58a

1 2Alabama, B1823-1935, Undated

4b6451fa294db110408afd673daeff0d

1 3Alabama, B-C1843-1995, Undated

32a73d7f38a46cbe85c4aa035a2cd9d7

1 4Alabama, C-D1883-1959, Undated

4ca5a8827ed5165ee8c3791c73bead03

1 5Alabama, D1832-1989, Undated

c9a58f0224fdc67bbf93195403df969f

1 6Alabama, D-E1894-1988, Undated

fbdf005a838e73e2b06c8d80ab98675b

1 7Alabama, F-G1833-1952, Undated

2fe8af15acd5c27c569529a7d0f0babd

1 8Alabama, G-H1878-1995, Undated

5ceb881f72fa7e494908ed20726a5a42

1 9Alabama, H1890-1997, Undated

42801f6e982579a7c5ae7226e32802dc

1 10Alabama, H1866-2000, Undated

89c21b9842fc60eab2ed64eb39c9b942

1 11Alabama, H-J1884-1996, Undated

c6ba483b8b73c8fe577e28c9ab87980b

1 12Alabama, J1831-1984, Undated

de565a73443fba5ce44ab095337fdeb0

1 13Alabama, J-K1904-1989, Undated

25db804566b91b88e2cf9445cb31c571

1 14Alabama, K-L1860-1989, Undated

3602ec2e89f3141136202f082f8d8daa

1 15Alabama, M1884-1993, Undated

5c272a3ed64552ac47e9f1ef70cc8eee

1 16Alabama, M-P1860-1989, Undated

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1 17Alabama, P1831-1950, Undated

2a9f6397df7c84af0a8d08e987a3fc14

1 18Alabama, R1839-1989, Undated

3db46e828ea07fb7aa8ebd5cbe44e3b4

1 19Alabama, R-S1887-1992, Undated

af7a358b961e41ce4091306004e4cf78

1 20Alabama, S-T1899-1991, Undated

1c44a787ac20f6dbee0139383c600306

2 1Alabama, V-W1886-1997

6498d251f4cb2b51e56810ee66593891

2 2Alabama, W-Y1894-1995, Undated

7a8a08ef2d8bdf8ff6792898fa9f1a24

2 3Alabama, unidentified and multiple executions1835-2005

b6d698717fe6619be6c0df0239bd7f04

2 4Alabama, executions recorded in county histories1941-1984, Undated

4f8e322d3cae10d45760116300985204

2 5Alabama, executions recorded in county histories1935-1989, Undated

94831371bf6e2b083d9a7c952e72c75f

2 6Alabama, executions recorded in statewide records1928-1989, Undated

280a853067a30f7adbe493e2ec862dbc

2 7-13Alabama, executions in manuscript formatUndated

fbe25f83bef0942c0074148987bed32e

2 14Alabama, unconfirmed and possible executions1827-1997, Undated

9dc0be0b63123188bd5d217269b43829

2 15-16Alabama, unconfirmed and possible executions1825-1860, Undated

adcd7b59e441ef4b211d7fafa2b8811e

2 17Alaska1879-1996, Undated

5d875e98661ffd4a9d5358e94cbaaefe

2 18Arizona, A-B1910-1996, Undated

3f08d0ed0e78e749e421ad6b69364a04

2 19Arizona, B-C1916-1998, Undated

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2 20Arizona, C-D1879-1995, Undated

196f0385aeb7459496e089237314c1e9

3 1Arizona, D1929-1970, Undated

a45accd0a06ce71e1091609261fc979f

3 2Arizona, F-G1911-1999, Undated

c4e458121b764a1262349bb0788df922

3 3Arizona, H1882-1994

e490fcafeefe7cd096c8bfcc43e772a6

3 4Arizona, H, J-L1934-1999

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3 5Arizona, L-M1897-1996, Undated

e7cf26937658475895b2a4985a6c733c

3 6Arizona, M-R1891-1991, Undated

2734125204c47bf9ffbb4a3bc85c1991

3 7Arizona, S-U1914-1991, Undated

bbc43c346cdef9b4f91125b78d985980

3 8Arizona, V-W, multiple executions1922-1999

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3 9Arizona, executions recorded in city, county, and statewide records1968, 1981, 1986, Undated

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3 10Arkansas, A-B1878-1998, Undated

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3 11Arkansas, B-C1886-1982, Undated

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3 12Arkansas, C-D1893-1997, Undated

c9973f9d481884441afdbad6edce8378

3 13Arkansas, D-G1881-1995, Undated

728fe5fd398af498747864bccfc91ae6

3 14Arkansas, H1902-1998, Undated

2e23fc88814101d6f513e6964d740569

3 15Arkansas, H-L1879-1983, Undated

18193fde5650fd703d1b2ec12245108f

3 16Arkansas, L-P1874-1996, Undated

2582a65785cc6f3f237219efad4756a5

3 17Arkansas, P-R1885-1999, Undated

547d22cd5ed0a34e683d06cf3a3276c1

3 18Arkansas, R-S1906-2000, Undated

2d067ef73012d8b18f7375543886ef33

4 1Arkansas, S1909-1995, Undated

46211831a11e69cbc86226de3e2909a1

4 2Arkansas, S-V1893-1990, Undated

8f71d7c9471bf838a6f942a6f85fedb1

4 3Arkansas, W1869-1997, Undated

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4 4Arkansas, unidentified and multiple executions1891-1997, Undated

2c89c7190daf0472b1acbb4fe3fd791a

4 5Arkansas, executions recorded in county and statewide records1890-1997, Undated

30d3f3389f0008e95882a9d55f1c9ac5

4 6Arkansas, unconfirmed and possible executionsUndated

f8f4327cbc14a509551a50c171f78401

4 7California, A1879-1995

dabe60f3dbad1022cf1ccd146c9d6daf

4 8California, A1923-1979, Undated

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4 9California, A-B1932-1979, Undated

db8a4b52bb52d6661aac1860a69bf3fd

4 10California, B1925-1996, Undated

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4 11California, B1913-1996, Undated

9a8528bb3d8a62d29f00bf2d3a166d84

4 12California, B1930-1996

a55e6f8f044c844152348fbc718fd7b5

4 13California, B1916-1955, Undated

fab3b1b67383ab1b36112dd42279ac10

4 14California, B-C1906-1964, Undated

e0ce3adf71de0c7b84ff695ac57adba2

4 15California, C1933-1988, Undated

a64ce709ed37e20a8cc81144515ff3e6

4 16California, C1954-1992, Undated

4bc3a42a944e1746c5255ae4774eed0e

4 17California, C1884-1998, Undated

58f91e28c1b261501f6fd9adadbfbdc0

4 18California, C1939-1989, Undated

b7d3a26c4c7c374354b1948db860ff27

5 1California, C1949-1994, Undated

ad0eb36b2c7ae937a646b5099af525e8

5 2California, C-D1939-1989, Undated

2072a858f75d8b38dee46d9c6f9cfd6c

5 3California, D1891-1975, Undated

de772cc1dac1c5d0bbe0009d824dc030

5 4California, D1895-1986

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5 5California, D-E1937-1962, Undated

9d46593e9497d0cc9336c866bac19573

5 6California, E-F1854-1968, Undated

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5 7California, F-G1856-1987, Undated

7c5339037482cda9bb9a80a7e8d33d15

5 8California, G1942-1983, Undated

99c4c9b96c7862bc00b222a65e909fad

5 9California, G1914-1984, Undated

a4512a09ea27d28241041fa8e438910e

5 10California, G-H1907-1963, Undated

f7614b7d3b763ba6043b09576ba75567

5 11California, H1989-1992

b43a058fec2ca04cae6fdb7b9216adfe

5 12California, H1980-1994

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5 13California, H1877-1992, Undated

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5 14California, H1928-1994, Undated

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5 15California, H-J1884-1969, Undated

47b08f5bce2fcb52796658ec3d291607

5 16California, J-K1885-1994, Undated

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5 17California, K1924-1976, Undated

a0543f50e3a812f81c034f3912d70c73

5 18California, K-L1929-1980, Undated

43f5a7591903e57e31e78b75da081b96

6 1California, L1887-1961, Undated

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6 2California, L1936-1989

b6f3718e6d57b13cec3887ea9361fac6

6 3California, L-M1885-1995, Undated

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6 4California, M1880-2001, Undated

d14ff04837bf76688bd1747259326c5f

6 5California, M1898-1992, Undated

4ab4a417466b28851dadefd36d925ac1

6 6California, M-N1881-1992, Undated

c6077aca3ef5738c669de86c5e25ad75

6 7California, N-O1866-1988, Undated

9d3674124318a219e02e0d60aef8d008

6 8California, O-P1899-1977, Undated

ca056bf24429654a804a399f7a168981

6 9California, P1864-1980, Undated

4b39b9adb0cc8a71680f04354bec91d0

6 10California, P-R1918-1987, Undated

a46d5fe4c4a8afbdf1f43cc5f84c822d

6 11California, R1896-1996, Undated

74362df83874459f93613fe0eaac18cd

6 12California, R-S1879-1982, Undated

20bc85178f14e8d78b11e8aac1114b05

6 13California, S1884-1973, Undated

bc63ed3ce2636b41526040c9aa88a658

6 14California, S1885-1969, Undated

976cb2bf2d6032c0c72ceaaca9572b53

6 15California, S1883-1999, Undated

35b1ff526aee922b074ffffa9828d69a

6 16California, S1899-1994, Undated

2b168e5eb3f0a62233c234089782a0c7

6 17California, T1891-1997

807bc2fd457bd4ef82af92934cf14a17

6 18California, T-V1873-1988

076a67aa5a448822fc773ec22d74f9bf

7 1California, V-W1932-1995, Undated

dfd3cb754ae95e8976f205b21c821f4c

7 2California, W1884-1996, Undated

953f47ac3008c3d49f12a06d035d4311

7 3California, W-Z1902-1990, Undated

64ccbf22047a8f32a941347731b18dfa

7 4California, Z1953-1964

9f858af611663e9a8e04f1d81ea93a31

7 5California, multiple executions1929-1983, Undated

878127ef8da9a03894fa5e9231d42ee9

7 6California, multiple executions1938-1995, Undated

7a09f627c48e6252460582ca5217c5ef

7 7California, multiple executions1953-1992

9f31b158b27ea7e55927794de07b862f

7 8California, executions recorded in city and county histories1880-1990, Undated

1e54aea93e8b20551714997d2a517682

7 9California, executions recorded in statewide records1931-1989, Undated

205bad40ad9edad82415c0ae19aa397b

7 10Colorado, A-C1881-1992, Undated

353937cd4a43e3e3052285313611acdf

7 11Colorado, D-F1932-1997

4207b0109eb47f92ee4e05ffa455e920

7 12Colorado, G-J1886-1994, Undated

13bed10f5392450f499d4cd8aa528be0

7 13Colorado, K-L1939-1994, Undated

f9788764094fb4ec406c3d9ec2982221

7 14Colorado, M1890-1994, Undated

e6804d7a49ad7b2aebd282b1a09f9213

7 15Colorado, N-R1879-1949, Undated

96c159c63f7ccaa8a7e2788fb2313b67

7 16Colorado, S1880-1994, Undated

0a17491a6d68c801cd3648a853755020

7 17Colorado, S-W1883-1986

a186fed6a9a09b92f4b505c588013015

7 18Colorado, multiple executions1896-1994, Undated

5503742798f3dddeeb84a07a7a7e6095

8 1Colorado, executions recorded in county and statewide records1947-1982

50bdda2816e38bfc38a9f4f3411e4298

8 2Connecticut, A-B1803-1965, Undated

1cc9e79f56a8ee23a370ab4ed64a47f4

8 3Connecticut, B-C1920-1977, Undated

27a74b91dba1e0ba7c65d93d4f1b9141

8 4Connecticut, C1894-1985, Undated

e2b8e6d00e50c296d29424bd95926b4e

8 5Connecticut, C-D1749-1989, Undated

067f080dce086747199301c20cb9eb79

8 6Connecticut, D, F-K1854-1991, Undated

005853b3845b0c2be3910e240131bf6e

8 7Connecticut, K-M1816-1991, Undated

a1deb43eb1996f55a49870ea0b9d0530

8 8Connecticut, M-O1807-1989, Undated

3e5441eda5bc26dc8b7e8095d3e293e0

8 9Connecticut, P-R1833-1991, Undated

e9e7e2bc1bd3cfc9490dda530e60f50b

8 10Connecticut, R-S1858-1989, Undated

844fe46f4f6e2903af8ed3a3a51f3642

8 11Connecticut, T,W, Z1917-1993, Undated

2608871667f476988788f521ffd4fbb2

8 12Connecticut, unidentified and multiple executions1918-1951, Undated

d9015a18c0422dc917977bed089f6b3e

8 13Connecticut, executions recorded in city and statewide records1981, Undated

ae1f43ebe72b9c87706ba1cbc0cf6459

8 14Delaware, A-B1792-1996, Undated

516ac2bb196dc3b7ed64f26d8bab9199

8 15Delaware, C-D1878-1996, Undated

9d72536774080c1367cd11d4c3327764

8 16Delaware, G-P1915-1992, Undated

8be9adbd3590913917ae12eb35a7bed0

8 17Delaware, R-Y1850-1996, Undated

cf7fe5fb2572b334b2320aa990f2d9e2

8 18Delaware, multiple executions1917

8bbff289bbd6162a447cc0a867f17c83

8 19Delaware, executions recorded in statewide records1956-1977, Undated

a60bb4601564844879e48b4c0c6b269d

8 20District of Columbia, B-H1896-1972, Undated

99f087e7af236afb3b468a2d2380815e

8 21District of Columbia, M-N1886-1976, Undated

d49b40999fd9a009ac4f2d39fc7ade33

8 22District of Columbia, P-T1873-1983

47b9ba43aa4f9848d6fff7638fb666dd

8 23District of Columbia, executions recorded in district wide records1989, Undated

63aef27fccd266ec75b02b869c6ca00c

9 1Florida, A1852-1990, Undated

3d43730decf8c37a3f2f1054bfaaa92d

9 2Florida, A1912-1991, Undated

77c2168bc094afae55bad7d2c863b6fd

9 3Florida, A-B1850-1995, Undated

8562e4eb4b86e67e14f4f2c1fd40e58d

9 4Florida, B1891-1995, Undated

750cf88c428fd0356b580b8c9b5b6595

9 5Florida, B1833-1995, Undated

e65f8d4043b3df53575f31bc5f97d8cb

9 6Florida, B1910-2000, Undated

7a91c4a295532c4a5c400249d12d1a01

9 7Florida, B-C1887-1996, Undated

aac9989513b79bcc1455b7edfd4c86fc

9 8Florida, C1848-1998, Undated

606abf28eb0c62160c21ac9093804f82

9 9Florida, C1939-1991, Undated

dd10e2ed18f9828f6d83e84d513aaf34

9 10Florida, C1916-1991

dce1c4234e22e1c0ed9c9f3a5dc74d72

9 11Florida, C-D1905-1988, Undated

6f2b48309dac3e0ac610f2f41c17280d

9 12Florida, D1886-1999, Undated

29c26f0049e1ed53db684f6548e90ce0

9 13Florida, D1982-1986, Undated

a01b20e8177547c64f988092b7d767b1

9 14Florida, D-E1926-1993, Undated

1fd69e5371005b6d72ae435c69f37846

9 15Florida, F1901-1991, Undated

86180314fbaae0035941576ac61a6542

10 1Florida, F1957-1989

aa87ca091bd59987f0e855cae3a8f328

10 2Florida, F-G1902-1986

2a82dcdb7bf7f32b6ad27bce91017f73

10 3Florida, G1849-1984, Undated

e3c5b086b61df9de58776b0855ff2618

10 4Florida, G-H1897-1991, Undated

d3fd5c772717aed4528ee907de6c5e71

10 5Florida, H1838-1999, Undated

5ad51505b6fa9b5d8f763825c841b5bb

10 6Florida, H1897-1991, Undated

205b524f7f6de0e836412597d0a75b14

10 7Florida, J1853-1943, Undated

b7bb588abe24af15f69e62fadfeb9f3a

10 8Florida, J1927-1993, Undated

d9e90a40713407620008014a8bb9309c

10 9Florida, J-K1888-1998, Undated

f87375307003cff8e921bdafe8d58759

10 10Florida, L-M1894-1974, Undated

cbac2b906f4b1b6bb9f82c2e6cddfe37

10 11Florida, M1912-1992, Undated

bd54074737bc3e8257e0b919991da5e6

10 12Florida, M1911-1992, Undated

52009fbef444c04a8173be15aeb052c3

10 13Florida, M-N1875-1997, Undated

1f10278590fbc6c7b84a912e04701c55

10 14Florida, N-P1894-1995, Undated

3deaa2530e8071ae4b9eedc3fbf1b67a

10 15Florida, P-Q1887-2000, Undated

785426e1494914ff1230311bf723b778

10 16Florida, R1877-1987, Undated

c7181d42038e91f69a50fa581d898335

10 17Florida, R-S1906-1984, Undated

281b25a9225eba7cb2478792a7f9ec16

10 18Florida, S1848-2000, Undated

8856b294c01d9e51cd410cd1ac592031

11 1Florida, S1895-1998, Undated

9b8ead5f9ee036831db257ec99f40dbb

11 2Florida, S1980-1991, Undated

91f091fbc0593ce20360055c8c31ceac

11 3Florida, T1885-1990, Undated

2751c608660c33558567291c1389fa90

11 4Florida, T1986

4563952fd77f668ab08277d1677ec668

11 5Florida, T-W1886-1986, Undated

35873a8ee0e3cef16461c33a802cb7aa

11 6Florida, W1887-1995, Undated

34066b38d413353783d38253f2fa0e23

11 7Florida, W-Y1869-2002, Undated

cd61880ae2f067aeec8aa055c6140a55

11 8Florida, Z and unidentified executions1933-2002, Undated

7bc179a9ff9b98d080842442ce015910

11 9Florida, multiple executions1846-1976, Undated

65259d0f2d34c452361112536d5c1891

11 10Florida, executions in city and county histories1954-1993, Undated

1752f905656e326a115e9cdb9bdfd33b

11 11Florida, executions recorded in county histories1976-1991

768a20969032206ab5c715c1c37e52dd

11 12Florida, executions recorded in statewide records1945-1993

5620ff118219dc1a888a1350b959084b

11 13Florida, executions recorded in statewide recordsUndated

b23497036c57cf2e86f1e22858f1bea2

11 14Florida, unconfirmed and possible executions1856-1926, Undated

d6fd9406fcf34c4aa35663621b9ffb1c

11 15Georgia, A-B1835-2008, Undated

12b409469d4ff92f55bec01b1980978f

11 16Georgia, B1867-1988, Undated

9403ed2c8e38c4330527465713e6f83d

11 17Georgia, B1877-1991, Undated

0885101d61ce27e1aade340213d8f516

11 18Georgia, B1847-1993, Undated

27b32328a3a440a80311a6c8b299540a

11 19Georgia, C1901-1998, Undated

afd16582ce98ab032ed0a4e85a25a5ab

11 20Georgia, C1801-1988, Undated

e08cd2918132b0e0843f006ae82a8321

11 21Georgia C1819-1991, Undated

94a99ceb48911959d9cf176e55f2eaad

11 22Georgia, D1878-1995, Undated

e09f8d0c51c99c6edb718391496fe5e1

11 23Georgia, D1858-1964, Undated

555b048e0e64c56c07609ff06d7a322b

11 24Georgia, E1821-1973, Undated

6d92de7836e1ec199566a4dfb747acbe

12 1Georgia , F-g1851-1997

d52ea36be5145a2df108063353d77729

12 2Georgia, G1892-1985, Undated

c6e87af02f99af8a5009192d80173290

12 3Georgia, H1903-1994

6ae95927d5fc15772d951cb6b774f923

12 4Georgia, H1858-1991, Undated

07478467c95531b083e9e51c88dcdc4b

12 5Georgia, H-I1849-2001

fcfca72fefc60d5b1e99b64e658b5140

12 6Georgia, J1833-1991, Undated

0ce977db0117417b470b12a7b7b0f8d0

12 7Georgia, J1884-1991, Undated

6b1d521d82a25e3714a41bb5913334e2

12 8Georgia, K-L1884-1996, Undated

e4f15fcf26dc190ab2df88766f290788

12 9Georgia, M1938-1991

5be852ad40dbf3e896886008b5856403

12 10Georgia, M1885-1995

9a2ff2ca6dc762a918ed55bee408c7ef

12 11Georgia, M1851-1998, Undated

08c9fa881e345bcb78bb287cb59ce0c0

12 12Georgia, M1882-1987

234ebfb01ddb7ef901f2774bd2203f85

12 13Georgia, M1841-1991

a77b5fb3c8449f2177a60537359489a9

12 14Georgia, M1841-1987, Undated

7cb0b550ef054fc5763b53e7b6eed493

12 15Georgia, N-O1815-1992

2978f084039125a6269257136e37b1ab

12 16Georgia P-Q1857-1975, Undated

e491a69fef2dc1cd31d465abe37e37b4

12 17Georgia, R1849-1973, Undated

a7dfe0782cadd1cdc49d5932c08866a1

13 1Georgia, S1859-1975, Undated

230d4e41a02e67a7f95bd05ea88fe122

13 2Georgia, S1832-1991

5856b47c45d9c2fd1d1760b5782a5fb4

13 3Georgia, S1985

6ede5fe50612149e6a55cc4f9d1471f1

13 4Georgia, S1873-1985, Undated

6188bffb18489abfd5ca66d1642cb409

13 5Georgia, T-V1833-1987, Undated

659a10773790d6b06b26e724a012e41b

13 6Georgia, W1820-1982, Undated

8220e56a4a42eafbf406e79ba2669dc6

13 7Georgia, W1906-1987

3b4e56a5d00d4d1937149d2eb49e8115

13 8Georgia, W-Y1850-1990, Undated

a67734026ca290ce5026f3c206d545d0

13 9Georgia, unidentified executions1867, Undated

cf5fa686345a14ab69c2b214b0ab2d95

13 10Georgia, multiple executions1882-1914, Undated

9faedf15088777101372b2b4ef91a11f

13 11Georgia, executions recorded in county histories1889-1995, Undated

681d70da5d533ddac95118fe4c4dcd7e

13 12Georgia, executions recorded in regional histories1989

e4deb4a33c787a6fecdc99793b5fc103

13 13Georgia, executions recorded in statewide records1887-1995, Undated

2dcd2952c122b3779e2a2e9af34fcfcf

13 14Georgia, executions recorded in statewide records1938-1991, Undated

46417428c9812b19c5224cf213a24e76

13 15Georgia, unconfirmed and possible executions1858-1990

23d7abe0d9bb58b655b4ee89fd3c7190

13 16Hawaii1930-1946

b029c1a1d9f8f47a2dbb38f66ebe3631

13 17Idaho, A-S1901-1971, Undated

a1ddc8aa4990d2377153a85842ddc1d0

13 18Idaho, S-W1888-1994, Undated

147c7216243c4fdb4e83e7c73e04d141

13 19Idaho, multiple executions1887-1989

4ed222df9b7d9bd7f77af38f303935c4

13 20Idaho, executions recorded in statewide records1976, Undated

f4fbde4999fff0a48ecf69b78e01c546

13 21Illinois, A1933-1995

c8a2a937cf3e3400bab938507157a795

13 22Illinois, B1878-1992, Undated

381e60f43f5937be10c90d9d452f107c

13 23Illinois, B1854-1997, Undated

6e84a3a0852aacf74215123906261ab1

13 24Illinois, B-C1873-1997, Undated

69e3b5ea07444684624550250d78d51a

14 1Illinois, C1907-1988

02d2b8e10ecee71e6ebe8bc7d6e904ff

14 2Illinois, C-D1856-1993, Undated

5aff30c32490cd599cef73c2a6382466

14 3Illinois, D1880-1995, Undated

7de25e3e084eec16fa0e01ed8e47f209

14 4Illinois, D-F1880-1995, Undated

8ba0244718ef2d01e2a146a34b4786ef

14 5Illinois, G1877-1994

1d2d0f41a6c63a6c7e795bcddacdde35

14 6Illinois, G1980-1994

e2ed0c613e880a8fe6754f0a278d88da

14 7Illinois, G1879-1988, Undated

7106763a7a5f8acb5bf4707c5483150b

14 8Illinois, G-H1824-1963, Undated

b6c70185d03b79c49be2d23b15bde6d6

14 9Illinois, H-J1893-1991, Undated

38e78624f73d9b851c6f281c08d51fc0

14 10Illinois, J-k1919-1986, Undated

d18597d5e681a2e8e7db6fb486b1ded0

14 11Illinois, K-L1881-1975, Undated

7752d995221ecfbd1bbf4bfd4711e066

14 12Illinois, L-M1837-1985, Undated

2d8a0ae32dedc36049f584e00e0fa7f4

14 13Illinois, M-N1878-1997, Undated

a79dd06c17cfbab491b1ddda29ab85e1

14 14Illinois, N-P1894-1977, Undated

013b5f69755b2c78af9a1aaefe1a1ae9

14 15Illinois, P1893-1993, Undated

295f50619e2d787209d399e14de4ed79

14 16Illinois, R-S1899-1984, Undated

5cb2f3c3e5d00e3582e007d55c84b6d6

15 1Illinois, S1933-1963, Undated

1b01c988651073267ca88be2d9466f0a

15 2Illinois, S1895-1990, Undated

baa7bfaec6b98b117a2ca660712a98c0

15 3Illinois, S1913-1996, Undated

bd7de93c07b7c90b52ca9a6f70ae37bf

15 4Illinois, S-T1933-1951, Undated

3ea888c7db41edde7f11083c57846b43

15 5Illinois, T-W1881-1990, Undated

c584f476fd254c5f2e92c947fd5f3ac9

15 6Illinois, W1986-1991

f0447d5865a0df8067651becc4bee462

15 7Illinois, W1921-1996, Undated

63a0050f38bcbb36dea280acd9b58ad0

15 8Illinois, W-Z1886-1995, Undated

da6168851c70a038f831ccba5f9288ce

15 9Illinois, unidentified and multiple executions1885-1995, Undated

78eef6e65d7bb869f7d7dcc0ec403527

15 10Illinois, multiple executions1912-1957, Undated

a3bbe37584a9055765275c156dadebd2

15 11Illinois, executions recorded in county histories1878-1994, Undated

490c963b48275beab9eccc9d16362eb4

15 12Illinois, executions recorded in statewide records1887, 1984, 1991, Undated

2337a7c14b5177b6336bdecde9dcc954

15 13Indiana, A-B1879-1983, Undated

ac1282e98e4dc185d00b50632eab81dc

15 14Indiana, B1886-1997, Undated

aca92d309289a09a651bc822cfb167ec

15 15Indiana, B-C1884-1997, Undated

8b3bc76de5248fc7a4ceb6a3ba5fe34d

15 16Indiana, C-F1826-1976, Undated

fc3e4b27870c0e3343e93c32a1190c03

15 17Indiana, G-H1823-1976, Undated

2718f03f67d63ff66ac4d555a1339329

16 1Indiana, H-M1825-2001, Undated

eb4470571227d9175e14ee57baa07c42

16 2Indiana, M-R1822-1981

e04abdb25b3985fa08f3929416857dbc

16 3Indiana, R-S1838-1996

c3c51add49149488ba4aebff3f2c9cf6

16 4Indiana, S1876-1998, Undated

5d1a95a8cf1e2406b5613becfbc0d4fd

16 5Indiana, T-W1867-1985, Undated

32b23899f8f1897140734fcb9d734c42

16 6Indiana, multiple executions1936-1976

96a572f416a8a53a9519c50579d9fd62

16 7Indiana, executions recorded in county and statewide records1881-1984, Undated

25a0f8de71ae600f9d22f6e0fe7e0503

16 8Iowa, B1935-1974, Undated

35a299d28ff81aaef2fc29e26820bf42

16 9Iowa, C-J1889-1975, Undated

99d118acb5c1982d741261f8e36f6bcd

16 10Iowa, J-P1865-1983, Undated

3c90ffdd38e2f7056649119cb73558f2

16 11Iowa, R-W1901-1979, Undated

495d76b54d6956ed0e8be0eb58d6cba3

16 12Iowa, executions recorded in county and state records1850-1977, Undated

40330dcbcfe878498334ff7b108cbf3f

16 13Kansas, A-H1867-1989

3e34e38f94fac7a192af3894f884e821

16 14Kansas, H-L1943-1962, Undated

ac61b364323a251c2efaf2268aa266be

16 15Kansas, L-T1887-1989, Undated

a906b3b46eaa0251e6787f22a62951a0

16 16Kansas, executions recorded in statewide records1950, Undated

8992bd5cf7a23a71f307cc3eaf184e11

16 17Kentucky, A-B1857-1990, Undated

e102e14f018a7f5a7663706375bd6480

16 18Kentucky, B1899-1990, Undated

5417a856f7be93f01317c03f42686a9b

16 19Kentucky, B1911-1990, Undated

18611dc645d315c06fdde35a589d9611

16 20Kentucky, C1885-1990, Undated

934b8bc84b94980da6fa9f3c007e1401

17 1Kentucky, C-D1885-1997, Undated

2c2dea77df0d4fdd5949fe53cd2d0541

17 2Kentucky, E-G1886-1990, Undated

83e9ffebdf2abaed1a6496ce396550da

17 3Kentucky, G1849-1986, Undated

84086e6bf1b7347d0c10260e96d816de

17 4Kentucky, H1823-1996, Undated

b9891cf1ea310fc2a2f63977022d5a19

17 5Kentucky, H-J1858-1990, Undated

25c87b87d3724b012700796f1edf473b

17 6Kentucky, J-M1887-1994, Undated

6ea135210f8a2b31c0cee3a658400d4e

17 7Kentucky, M1829-1990, Undated

d4a5a6873d39ba30603e0849eaeb58e2

17 8Kentucky, M-P1878-1992, Undated

c4d38cb0a11da6a1c942741166c83762

17 9Kentucky, Q-S1853-1974, Undated

5fd38b0daf1f996170fd13129ee45dac

17 10Kentucky, S-T1868-1990, Undated

6d5ddbe8717b632709e486552f949c0e

17 11Kentucky, T1883-1990, Undated

074c551fdfa70d52c3726965d6a8e4be

17 12Kentucky, U-W1879-1990, Undated

655e4810b1325a63dc26b8a0274afadc

17 13Kentucky, W-Y1899-1990, Undated

231774f4b401142293c20fbe553452c8

17 14Kentucky, multiple executions1941-1975, Undated

bcebec5d0c2c8018789cf139517d13f6

17 15Kentucky, multiple executions1892-1990, Undated

264f0dd7de58969368bb4fbb784e41d9

17 16Kentucky, executions recorded in county histories1883-1983, Undated

4cfcfe464b5852c13e27a62bf3161988

17 17Kentucky, executions recorded in county histories1886-1972, Undated

3f9d5e920be6d5f553ec6a85bdfa8f6f

17 18Kentucky, executions recorded in statewide records1974-1987, Undated

52d7276965b2d8cb78c50cd3f541d5cb

17 19Kentucky, unconfirmed executions1850, Undated

e163091299d9212f4a7891e2ae37331c

17 20Louisiana, A-B1885-1984, Undated

356801b24be3b24170f859a59f4cbf93

17 21Louisiana, B1897-1993, Undated

80c93da926285a48c821395027b9b721

18 1Louisiana, B1831-1997, Undated

c90ea877a77da2a924389603ba612c87

18 2Louisiana, B-C1837-1995, Undated

6a687bceda146a98141f649066e283ca

18 3Louisiana, C1879-1987, Undated

a362a5160573d6ccc04cb4c849883a63

18 4Louisiana, C-D1867-1989, Undated

da0279f86adf575285715b3530ec39eb

18 5Louisiana, D-E1831-1979, Undated

8b8af84b9cabfdc74511778d50f667c4

18 6Louisiana, F-G1879-1988, Undated

767c5145afa355aeb2b50f688e2bf879

18 7Louisiana, G1878-1987, Undated

89d7192d0f9fafc7e1ea6a4cca7224c3

18 8Louisiana, H-J1818-1996, Undated

7ca43dbc2c5fdd3470dbc70136aba376

18 9Louisiana, J1930-1991, Undated

1ccf1088f0754c166a43372759df467b

18 10Louisiana, K-L1830-1988, Undated

317666d8519485e255ba67948e792d0b

18 11Louisiana, M1806-1991, Undated

cb56919b4577477caf2f7756faf48998

18 12Louisiana, M-P1893-1987, Undated

4cdf0433aaaf2ccdd67e41438a4d0df7

18 13Louisiana, P-R1906-1990, Undated

004762bae654585e36d2ff7da6e17fd2

18 14Louisiana, S1905-1993, Undated

2f3c2eeae78d5598fd162c1a84cde6a3

18 15Louisiana, S-W1837-1995, Undated

091ff9265c287ba368dcc1f780853ebb

18 16Louisiana, W1885-1998, Undated

b107daa10858ac1a36a045bab1f171c2

18 17Louisiana, W-Y1885-1963, Undated

e3a66f0f84a6d960eb84921c5b37bf4e

18 18Louisiana, unidentified executions1812-1984, Undated

25e6e88dc87971165402970ea24ebda6

19 1Louisiana, multiple executions1896-1966, Undated

cbafbbc56948eefa54afd38ad5406dc3

19 2Louisiana, multiple executions1837-1984, Undated

993519306b6f51213f8409429a454270

19 3Louisiana, executions recorded in city and parish histories1885-1990

7c6d1d7199b3fc7e8cc72c3d5a6821ee

19 4Louisiana, executions recorded in statewide records1936-1989, Undated

5c5f91063dc600275321d0837484640c

19 5Louisiana, executions recorded in statewide records1923-1986, Undated

eb258dcee6494cf77334a231c90bf4df

19 6Louisiana, unconfirmed executions1815-1908, Undated

d5cf1ed67de654ac5cf6487425b1dcfd

19 7Maine1788-1988, Undated

1b8ff8e9c688dcd8351817f8ac41e627

19 8Maryland, A-C1820-1991, Undated

68c2c1f111331cc8ddb316557ca2f897

19 9Maryland, D-G1792-1998, Undated

3211ec3fc2b19dda6ede636ef852605b

19 10Maryland, H-L1808-1991, Undated

a3750c09cecc9b8156fff63597a596e0

19 11Maryland, M-T1845-1994, Undated

470bb36e75c62552e3b6f27fae0920c0

19 12Maryland, V-W1844-1991, Undated

e54ebe71699abec46135031d20c190d3

19 13Maryland, unidentified executions, multiple executions, and executions recorded in statewide records1858-1989, Undated

0ba2ebbd4accbb22fe5c981d47850a67

19 14Massachusetts, A-B1834-1988, Undated

dcfed0f3a5150b04a19217d9a947dd8b

19 15Massachusetts, B-C1796-1988

392343b16087f70f7757fd5f33794ff8

19 16Massachusetts, C-D1739-1984, Undated

7807a927852ae9d0399a98b02d150799

19 17Massachusetts, D1879-1982, Undated

4f7a0230bfe77821bb6dd715b960eb41

19 18Massachusetts, E-F1730-1989, Undated

d2cb890237b9338bcace95f57d22e3e6

19 19Massachusetts, G1849-1989, Undated

2d8f838de4ea41ce6d798c5b128fae50

19 20Massachusetts, G-H1849-1989, Undated

ad6ad72f6a8264d185856673b575842e

19 21Massachusetts, I-K1830-1977, Undated

5b741c91e6f0597f46aaec4777a0c405

19 22Massachusetts, K-O1857-1988, Undated

d006e5456385f7392e33ed36ca8acd25

19 23Massachusetts, O-R1850-1983, Undated

7d89c101d47eddb428a7b0b7c04a0361

20 1Massachusetts, R-S1771-1997, Undated

f11cac1175144f2e0cd7342d5c94ba17

20 2Massachusetts, S1936-1991, Undated

140b8002ac51a6a90b381d7f877c674b

20 3Massachusetts, S1935-1991, Undated

3be7f320b12899e5f9c51c6ec9a2b8d1

20 4Massachusetts, T1812-1997, Undated

54b0edd27a4f3c38f7591c310950f989

20 5Massachusetts, T-Z1806-1988, Undated

009b3a7466a17be75d1931821fda021c

20 6Massachusetts, multiple executions1820-1990, Undated

a6631b7e99d564405390c491af69602a

20 7Massachusetts, executions recorded in city and county histories1878-1992, Undated

1e5096e2553c1808b0b0cff3390d2abb

20 8Massachusetts, executions recorded in statewide records1849-1988, Undated

4b09fea367446ab9b424dd4061d2614e

20 9Massachusetts, executions recorded in statewide records1971-1992, Undated

6c0c78e6606fdb70c036acd908ddb60d

20 10Michigan1924-1986, Undated

4bc9197afe24ae3ac139c091a33cfc15

20 11Minnesota, B-H1889-1991, Undated

1d47c0066b0ae0a5b31d2a9d4ea01828

20 12Minnesota, H-Y1897-1992, Undated

8fe7ef413e339822dfbb22d56345869e

20 13Minnesota, multiple executions1962, 1976, 1987

627270e2dd18751cf33de12450ae7901

20 14Mississippi, A-B1837-1976, Undated

8ef09dca110fc4baffdf9b94baeae404

20 15Mississippi, B-C1824-1978, Undated

4bd61f483380c6d062e44653a5b3b8a8

20 16Mississippi, C-E1818-1989, Undated

ad2eb411bc164df24da70b2a9e8bf10e

20 17Mississippi, F-G1849-1990, Undated

b4ea82e5276e00f35310b08d55736f4e

20 18Mississippi, G-H1846-1992, Undated

55573a8cf3c3ad86dc8a8ab0894cf535

20 19Mississippi, H-J1845-1946, Undated

366c75a74729d9d3c71d428c3fe3a499

20 20Mississippi, J-L1857-1987, Undated

43d4e6ce361ebf3f42076467201c0b6d

20 21Mississippi, L-M1852-1947, Undated

b1546462dbfdc6e9320a5edd78755f28

21 1Mississippi, M-P1845-1986, Undated

7c12dc372cf5889579efcfa0251ae14c

21 2Mississippi, P-R1841-1977, Undated

0515d67f39ff539f2a158bab00e6ff10

21 3Mississippi, S1877-1986, Undated

a4337cea58ac11d25d3826a9359723f9

21 4Mississippi, S-T1849-1995, Undated

6d9fd4d652885f3e4b595ee39147fe73

21 5Mississippi, U-W1851-1948, Undated

bd46342d11d2e20de9bb7c1c0baae199

21 6Mississippi, W-Y1873-1988, Undated

ade5982b74cf66c8c0c5fdb93608a737

21 7Mississippi, unconfirmed executions1828-1950

5889b0ef66637ff29d4efa37113dd7e4

21 8Mississippi, unidentified and multiple executions1851-1948, Undated

67f909563b9c1a02227e77ea9ad8386d

21 9Mississippi, executions recorded in county histories1884-1981, Undated

946fea36cd09121ad60052fe70d2004c

21 10Mississippi, executions recorded in statewide records1875-1992, Undated

ae32b48ecfa89c088e1585759da179d4

21 11Missouri, A-B1849-1953, Undated

21b1e17f4b21a565a20eebfe06faa504

21 12Missouri, B1863-1993, Undated

abc117005a0066131df654c18abbfa92

21 13Missouri, B-C1874-1991, Undated

426cd9a6db9ae8e5341901266c955e0b

21 14Missouri, C-E1821-1991, Undated

a9fd6a735e20477763dc51c4b01b5b96

21 15Missouri, E-G1850-1995, Undated

87b235a9f8d7fe7ca15c57aa694060b5

21 16Missouri, G1879-1995, Undated

5f6a280e08a64849da463fa1c3e8b614

21 17Missouri, H-J1883-1992, Undated

5f882887a3968e4825589a4cf15ee721

21 18Missouri, J-K1886-2001, Undated

b2e3fa7388da3c28929254fe9cf3d2f4

22 1Missouri, K-L1831-1996, Undated

e74ca27d29dec6b7a901c7b2c67c8e5d

22 2Missouri, L-M1846-1993

ed153cb5096228e827fb54d3d284afa5

22 3Missouri, M1931-1997

2d04eb499b549a0c94c80e8d1a112b64

22 4Missouri, M-O1854-1996, Undated

3cc9f48e9942e56ee018abff85d1ab13

22 5Missouri, O-P1877-1996, Undated

a242bf84ce8551981f64fb253bbc3775

22 6Missouri, P-R1857-1999, Undated

ad6a3033fda8c37c5f28a15bc7e20300

22 7Missouri, S1824-1997, Undated

c1b95ce0e1fc7c99ab3c90f865c2140b

22 8Missouri, S-T1830-1996, Undated

7b00a7d9a8a603bd1bf1e23a2eeb3b6a

22 9Missouri, T-W1879-1996, Undated

ecba9b4b75d652c1515d02175e6ee6c7

22 10Missouri, W-Z1888-1996, Undated

b09bd6f5e8f1097ccf6a010ad055412e

22 11Missouri, unidentified and multiple executions1841-1991, Undated

e13efba3ccb0a8a96ffbfff166791278

22 12Missouri, executions recorded in city and county histories1883-1990, Undated

0229baba434b607aa0f4a4e36b3c45a6

22 13Missouri, executions recorded in county histories1883-1981, Undated

ce18703fbe73c48ce5b8ea7b5d4e292e

22 14Missouri, executions recorded in county histories1881-1985, Undated

5a639da3c57d0126138ab4f996197fd9

22 15Missouri, executions recorded in statewide records1881, 1949, 1987, Undated

0f01141fd2eac24ea571b1bbedc83335

22 16Missouri, unconfirmed executions1837-1913

63a14f2c12c72ac5c139957d7a511a6b

22 17Montana, A-H1882-1996, Undated

eb0a9029a936b812788b995ba4b6225d

22 18Montana, K-M1879-1998, Undated

293e4cec0bd6f5203b04fbb7820a8576

22 19Montana, M-R1878-1952, Undated

adf6115ded441b3f67539642af058d93

23 1Montana, S-Z1888-1975, Undated

bd98b97f2a7e0ba33352fccafd48f64d

23 2Montana, multiple executions and executions recorded in statewide records1975, Undated

4cd128b9741d08f78a12eaed58923676

23 3Nebraska, B-F1891-1943, Undated

ec98f780c008a88df427b0c50617ae97

23 4Nebraska, H-J1887-1996, Undated

af394d92424b7aaecfec3719d6ff9cd8

23 5Nebraska, M-N1890-1986

2c147ecd85e00a4048229ce41a6ca26f

23 6Nebraska, N-P, R1903-1994

48012f2bb0e4635c8ec8782300c761e0

23 7Nebraska, R-S1879-1994, Undated

49800e8b3cba4484aa101781c334be2a

23 8Nebraska, S-T, W1917-1976, Undated

3f092d304570014ddbd37bc9b4e2f7bb

23 9Nebraska, executions recorded in county and statewide records1892, 1937, 1994, Undated

cf8f5a33c337d7d136a9cc822254d094

23 10Nevada, A-B1948-1990, Undated

b65f4e80b669ddb153786f1b9a50aa7d

23 11Nevada, C-F1949-1989, Undated

0f15f3a723c7fc271fdb256b67c7ffff

23 12Nevada, G-K1882-1994, Undated

4f1e07a2d92d108bfbc27693ecf9c154

23 13Nevada, L-M1868-1985, Undated

a68690aa69444b3df8d7134f88a4dc13

23 14Nevada, M, P, R, S1874-1999, Undated

a5bec2501b92149df80d4d9543a33cfb

23 15Nevada, S-T, V-W1874-1989

2e95e551c5048acd3cde60fdc37cac52

23 16Nevada, multiple executions and executions recorded in statewide records1922-1958, Undated

67bb6917eec166573cc574659632d43e

23 17New Hampshire, A-H1849-1991, Undated

95620d85ace3be74f61b72a7890b83cb

23 18New Hampshire, K-T1845-1997, Undated

62fb2d8def72361bf5d65f73ab8a76c1

23 19New Hampshire, executions recorded in county and statewide records1884-1973, Undated

75e1aa1312303db386610861836ef6d1

23 20New Jersey, A-B1860-1946, Undated

a63776a3e42dad173346721613d9bd16

24 1New Jersey, B1895-1988, Undated

d5758a0227a623891a793ed34ffd7fb5

24 2New Jersey, C1883-1999, Undated

5c5a245ad1d015f4e7b3b5dcd37312f8

24 3New Jersey, C1879-1976, Undated

9b84acf592603ae0141daac155ff16d1

24 4New Jersey, D1857-1985, Undated

e61019a1f5670952a720f173d739a432

24 5New Jersey, D-F1883-1990

73d773f823fdcb2d42482485c225d816

24 6New Jersey, F1856-1985, Undated

8d9b564b927daaf63eaaed3e6bfd6e78

24 7New Jersey, G-H1796-1949, Undated

54c434356b8663836acef1965ccdb6f6

24 8New Jersey, H (Hauptmann)1932-1995

4e68339ea27efa5dd5e741054b82797d

24 9New Jersey, H (Hauptmann)1931-1991

9cce3e722328bde30cf301ff189c1d02

24 10New Jersey, H (Hauptmann)1935-1991, Undated

da6dc95ff46b4c9bbf7cde386892f4ac

24 11New Jersey, H1837-1978, Undated

b7d8012efb48e2a63f7a44627254f046

24 12New Jersey, H-J1875-1958, Undated

6667df4376baeb58e3df7e864116ffe6

24 13New Jersey, K-M1859-1994, Undated

b8e2a3b43bc90698ffb473aaf14c055c

24 14New Jersey, M1881-1987, Undated

faac55a23427a84c688c999a1f4d1687

24 15New Jersey, N-S1867-1992, Undated

5deff65874b26705aba1a66e5689f3b8

24 16New Jersey, S-Z1867-1994, Undated

4bcf81be5fd835a5b07e264e34421e98

24 17New Jersey, unconfirmed executionsUndated

053605cacf10379a53bace6f8bfeb270

24 18New Jersey, multiple executions1915-1943

421ddaf5755963d2cee55ffe943d7659

25 1New Jersey, executions recorded in county, regional, and statewide records1881-1987, Undated

2f104d38663e3098762317dbb92ba0c7

25 2New Mexico, A-H1861-1986, Undated

7729bb5bcee13cc90dda382332de6e34

25 3New Mexico, H-M1885-1985, Undated

07f1802fe6835a12c8e06c0185c93b69

25 4New Mexico, M-W1883-1992, Undated

c610165b12ceb000399ad4abc40e800d

25 5New Mexico, Y1946-1985

10acd75bf87f2cc588a9a99a9e14307b

25 6New Mexico, unidentified and multiple executions1897-1991, Undated

1201458bc4d5552da77ec83e2c70bb34

25 7New Mexico, executions recorded in city, county, and statewide records1901-1982, Undated

303b04209365497de28ec0475aa2051e

25 8New Mexico, unconfirmed executions1948

6b68b00ff0390b7d9b1188c7c305c7fe

25 9New York, A1882-1979

7d4d30ebea5941d380b92e672676ddfd

25 10New York, A1821-1967, Undated

1a43f8c489078fce13ac22553267ba2e

25 11New York, A-B1880-1964, Undated

2ba52148eb9a26585ae98fa0b9d091d1

25 12New York, B1837-1994

5a8b0b666202acabe861c3d0eb2577fd

25 13New York, B1876-1991, Undated

9cc4587edf44b49caa44874823571893

25 14New York, B1935-1990

1042f1c55322b8134147819d58531e30

25 15New York, B1932-1975, Undated

7333e4eb4aee21b5297ac5370bcf8288

25 16New York, B1878-1994, Undated

ba6575ce676e2264927ccbefc279b02c

25 17New York, B-C1869-1977, Undated

b9e0f4c560818db2324bf3727ed414de

25 18New York, C1829-1951

9b4b2532b92f610123940c161efd5797

25 19New York, C1897-1988, Undated

3da99eca86df184a73e9fc4a60e061dc

26 1New York, C1880-1991, Undated

3dca70c5d6c5e756945515bf5b141af0

26 2New York, C-D1854-1991

343fbaa04b7a1d125aabe69940846359

26 3New York, D1878-1951, Undated

a405d41cfce6d1cf9c0c25046d41ab66

26 4New York, D1813-1977, Undated

201ae2bf383ebe031427e7d5b66cba95

26 5New York, D-E1871-1990, Undated

ecf395b453c2cd37eab21d374320dd20

26 6New York, E1876-1975, Undated

c2bf9a80b95c4c69f4bcda684f9c8e06

26 7New York, E-F1825-1986, Undated

ecfd06878e9f8748bc15fb4c660dd9a2

26 8New York, F1910-1991, Undated

e90091f0741654759b9e7af132f76392

26 9New York, F-G1866-1979, Undated

f6e0a4a7fb41c15cdf80faaa0f80ac70

26 10New York, G1935-1951, Undated

dea4f39eac06324ca63b6be342020558

26 11New York, G1865-1981, Undated

15a1e22b114ccf553f40cc38f3305a9d

26 12New York, G1876-1971, Undated

11618e7fbe67de5c6bdc66603e02bfec

26 13New York, G1881-1989

f7c9bd80cfbb1271c14e34beccd6eef8

26 14New York, G-H1876-1989, Undated

e6f27d93f429f11b4127782bf18a11ab

26 15New York, H1819-1989, Undated

02fcfd43fe6ed2da4576c3fdb7c56f8d

26 16New York, H1817-1978, Undated

1f88cb03818d0004b8d51e70a3037bdf

26 17New York, H-J1888-1975, Undated

64315c97bfe902537eb7b5c84e2592d0

26 18New York, J-K1828-1988, Undated

07fab169a8762e1e7298b3b067521b17

27 1New York, K1865-1955, Undated

27ce6643243a6629f32410f323438aa0

27 2New York, K-L1834-1997, Undated

e48841d2e6fea626487618e36f740929

27 3New York, L1874-1991, Undated

181cb7431a43aa2010f635263b0ec939

27 4New York, L-M1883-1984, Undated

23993f68ea7e78db6a5f0a74bf4d68a2

27 5New York, M1854-1988, Undated

9ca7ff132f7e3fa20164daa081ec5337

27 6New York, M1876-1985, Undated

c336f8a38bf928a6365dfb73f4b08ff3

27 7New York, M-N1937-1964, Undated

24de0c490cdd4c85c413f34bda7b8f85

27 8New York, O-P1866-1964, Undated

30e9075448328ddca096a57b076626ff

27 9New York, P1880-1966, Undated

1ced1523641e2d2f14f6edcefe75e753

27 10New York, R1933-1987, Undated

099ac75c825b4ea386b8353f4bd80ef7

27 11New York, R1881-1964, Undated

260c0ce0a8baea0374d788289f36ee05

27 12New York, R1858-1964, Undated

b2286005ebfd80ccc63bdaf0a76b9a95

27 13New York, R-S1851-1975, Undated

e8d51595299cd1298a7b26766e04b08c

27 14New York, S1923-1984, Undated

88c9d8d7777461a3eaf4423cc5c91e06

27 15New York, S1879-1987, Undated

ff0a65a6b89b1108116104f115b220ba

27 16New York, S1927-1991, Undated

dc910fbaae0466880ba483ceb9583438

27 17New York, S-T1878-1991, Undated

2d04f87a68970e2118be796265dc33b4

28 1New York, T-V1888-1984, Undated

90a3644cb962d02bed4aa9a622ad0a60

28 2New York, V-W1917-1963, Undated

435f1a44d544ec754aabfbc858ca2325

28 3New York, W1819-1988, Undated

77e895eaccb8b14fc34cbae0fd7423c1

28 4New York, W1858-1984, Undated

4ca577ea271eff64c14d650d00c698c5

28 5New York, W-Z1797-1989, Undated

86ca0ae41cec983ecab334b7ba9118be

28 6New York, unidentified1988

2ce948d18c25e5dbfcfe3be657bf1d66

28 7New York, slave insurrections1928-1988, Undated

77596ba2d03f17a76566f000c8e353d8

28 8New York, multiple executions1934-1964, Undated

ae08f8c515cac1fc3d0aacd0c4794825

28 9New York, multiple executions1914-1988, Undated

d7b31564709a39ff40ce38bae065e8f4

28 10New York, multiple executions1929-1975, Undated

87706b46fbdfaea270a73a4a9d122747

28 11New York, multiple executions1928-1955, Undated

93cfdf4dc24b029b321408075bfe443b

28 12New York, multiple executions1934-1985, Undated

df19e99243baa3f9150b8edfa92d1b50

28 13New York, executions recorded in city and county histories1851-1963, Undated

3b721c27e129129be22bc3c161a39e43

28 14New York, executions recorded in statewide records1857-1988, Undated

850b07a4432a96da1188254e814f2eac

28 15New York, executions recorded in statewide records1881-1974, Undated

3add04fd1748145fd7e22afdb3b8c481

28 16New York, executions recorded in statewide records1964-1965, Undated

aaf8b485f80fc20b605435d71721cd43

28 17New York, executions recorded in statewide recordsUndated

cc6494ad0dcca762aae34970179d5449

28 18New York, unconfirmed and possible executions1839-1886, Undated

8efa952b342847978a7d4ef145aef8f8

28 19North Carolina, A1825-1972, Undated

5acca28f8f519cbd9ad1d91768dacfbd

28 20North Carolina, B1874-1996, Undated

e9b3b279ad31c6de83b3a9d0e8fa4b3f

29 1North Carolina, B1822-1956, Undated

0e679a73404907682fb3df952b8bf04f

29 2North Carolina, B1847-1959, Undated

8fd9460f5bab552a6b4e36941bde1a88

29 3North Carolina, C1830-1956, Undated

8b86801f250996f02a3c8de4bad62909

29 4North Carolina, C-D1851-1977, Undated

50d916ab994719432accb29b569b7333

29 5North Carolina, D1773-1987, Undated

b04f22a44af3059789aaa3a900421f30

29 6North Carolina, E-F1831-1985, Undated

d933ff3556344749db22040199171035

29 7North Carolina, F-G1888-1992, Undated

1d4d04880d517d8f29a64b841caff7f7

29 8North Carolina, G1818-1995, Undated

0099880b477f01efc1340dc1951eba74

29 9North Carolina, H1849-1954, Undated

c67b2d9f69aaa61b74066ad2069cd2cc

29 10North Carolina, H-I1880-1998, Undated

4782ea48a2fa278ab319857f26aeceb0

29 11North Carolina, J1856-1975, Undated

6f9933a8f87c4b9ba3e4acfac1b30b24

29 12North Carolina, J-K1830-1935, Undated

a3bd1644430fd19b638ef95e04c6508d

29 13North Carolina, L1868-1995, Undated

d17a8792c3c31c48ccdb2c1c233967e9

29 14North Carolina, M1921-1991, Undated

2795e798539f0bbe5cafc69a5f80b4ab

29 15North Carolina, M1829-1988, Undated

5d28a50fb6351700232ba91e58155e58

29 16North Carolina, M1827-1990, Undated

8b2595add2bcef630177703857be7e82

29 17North Carolina, O-P1858-1984, Undated

f4dedd4b8e8e7e266f2770bbd30624d4

30 1North Carolina, P-R1878-1999, Undated

b712cb8270e5b54cdf470eb0e16d410a

30 2North Carolina, S1812-1853, Undated

03340828ee8da3666a34a5660482f6e7

30 3North Carolina, S1810-1995, Undated

589f55c16429437d3dd65b60887c9a36

30 4North Carolina, S1820-1984, Undated

42df4982977352f243feff488fb80853

30 5North Carolina, T-W1810-1848, Undated

6a89acc797000392a7d1c906e1ee5242

30 6North Carolina, W1810-1987, Undated

d7b5909c783021b46b3fd0369b409669

30 7North Carolina, W1854-1986, Undated

6efe21ade169ad57fc46d70cc94e6799

30 8North Carolina, multiple executions1831-1964, Undated

a99eec59a0db49c8715f2785f9fd8275

30 9North Carolina, executions recorded in city histories1983, 1984, 1988

38b177dac2b25ca6ff72964b997bacf6

30 10North Carolina, executions recorded in county histories1920-1985, Undated

53780b84f0259930b3a3f6dabdc47fc6

30 11North Carolina, executions recorded in statewide records1886-1901

6b06c35764b5257ab9315026ffc9895d

30 12North Carolina, executions recorded in statewide records1907, 1937

620fd5a8668b941ede49c2fcb81dd49d

30 13North Carolina, executions recorded in statewide records1928-1987, Undated

80aa4c607fdf5a11361f3790a24b9073

30 14North Carolina, unconfirmed executions1827, 1831, 1858, 1937, Undated

7cc9339938b5726a18e48701c64b1e9c

30 15North Dakota1885-1988, Undated

573cb6071266e82871f6ccebff4bf19c

30 16Ohio, A-B1891-1982, Undated

aafdd999453e76e93be2825e5995cf7e

30 17Ohio, B1872-1998, Undated

14bd2523f56cb2e740de669d9dccb440

30 18Ohio, B-C1871-2001, Undated

64484d2e427ed173bae71f1bd57a9c8f

30 19Ohio, C1844-1986, Undated

b3a16529f0cfbf69ecb1a2c6add464d5

30 20Ohio, C-D1882-1974, Undated

feeee5cac172c2475999257ce0553878

30 21Ohio, D1864-1986, Undated

b238ff459b5e6e46e9a93c7e083eea66

31 1Ohio, D-E1876-1989, Undated

bc7f43d9f29bd38b0f1ca822d73981ef

31 2Ohio, E-F1889-1969, Undated

b9cf7ffcb55b17aa329f8b654a15062c

31 3Ohio, F-G1897-1982, Undated

3268133bd5aae2c01cf29655fd91e45f

31 4Ohio, G-H1874-1984, Undated

07eba600ff475161eece6cc6f18b6782

31 5Ohio, H1927-1974

12446b88e2b17c6203b6b4e1d8a1e199

31 6Ohio, H1892-1982, Undated

1528b9109a705e9362e31d6db1b1068a

31 7Ohio, H-J1871-1969, Undated

abae8c5187d671064fe0019e53d66bbf

31 8Ohio, J-L1884-1974, Undated

9a93135bbd2d2c608bb7fc2dae769b58

31 9Ohio, L-M1878-1984, Undated

6bfd1213b22ad3d63723593fb13345a0

31 10Ohio, M1876-1974, Undated

6b05f29acd6f25eb9e3b32a443badf44

31 11Ohio, M-P1864-1975, Undated

5bdb627b5e919ab706c7c0e24d613e27

31 12Ohio, P1890-1952, Undated

dea2c10340a21b4e5222daeaad67899e

31 13Ohio, P-R1922-1997, Undated

18e1623f7c6f4648557b83d49a5e6c7f

31 14Ohio, R1921-1990, Undated

d55424b93ac92d390c8e9b9e197aa6f4

31 15Ohio, R-S1870-1978, Undated

d29afd68a1f13954759d38a776f96e68

31 16Ohio, S1930-1997, Undated

0a7d8a8f5078e862c418c97afb3beb3e

31 17Ohio, S-T1888-1996, Undated

306af0c099816e525ef555af20512721

32 1Ohio, T1882-1984, Undated

fe800f78097dc411444a7c1b57799cb3

32 2Ohio, T-V1922-1976, Undated

5f0daf90bd6a863724f8525e9fc76881

32 3Ohio, W1878-1987, Undated

673cb59060b44957dce640904ad34639

32 4Ohio, W, Y1891-1991, Undated

aa5948dc7c99e12820aa560652e5c0e7

32 5Ohio, multiple executions1867-1991, Undated

2bc7747732c664d7a3d05f49e5668d6d

32 6Ohio, executions recorded in city and county histories1878-1985, Undated

f0c780130dc21ee4f615e523c6c11dbc

32 7Ohio, executions recorded in statewide records1965-1991, Undated

57a997dbf252a0333dcf63dcebcddb7e

32 8Oklahoma, B-C1891-1997, Undated

4f516c489faff59780b6de63c83c5cb1

32 9Oklahoma, C1939-1992

bd319fb5d68f95a9af1b8252353cebf0

32 10Oklahoma, D, F1933-1998, Undated

14e160d8db1395756091a1de971d19b5

32 11Oklahoma, F-H1927-1995, Undated

046c2df600665f910b198601851d9252

32 12Oklahoma, H-K1908-1996, Undated

f6d726a84f5f8feb1ab3ab00f60d26c5

32 13Oklahoma, L-O1933-1998, Undated

37bd205d4373df4249a99dcbac4ab284

32 14Oklahoma, O-P1940-1992, Undated

dc8a907b66550cb277d6fd784afba122

32 15Oklahoma, Q-R1932-1985, Undated

f35578f728f2393f50b6c6b3e2b40048

32 16Oklahoma, R-S1922-1999, Undated

c8a0e7ecf0bf9ac79be376c6d3b9fded

32 17Oklahoma, S-T, W1940-1995, Undated

0e242ca4f41ce30720ba35ff743cbf15

32 18Oklahoma, W1940-1980

644b18da10bf606c21d38ce9f4633451

32 19Oklahoma, executions recorded in statewide records1979, Undated

63655a244b60e9485a4dd788d8cb8019

33 1Oregon, A-C1902-1996, Undated

f4f09805e374ab0c23f52d9589ca7fd3

33 2Oregon, C-E1902-1979, Undated

5af02902e4165bc16cce71386228eab0

33 3Oregon, F, H1894-1998, Undated

379b88c2a403c4e2285bf33dce49b6ab

33 4Oregon, H, J-K1911-1975, Undated

7e22e15f45e90eaaa4090d5150435688

33 5Oregon, L1878-1985, Undated

d1f83d0369c3eb641cdfa73d0a87a46b

33 6Oregon, L-M1887-1997, Undated

13b03bb19a174d100c52a44f4c7bd300

33 7Oregon, N-S1877-1977, Undated

6b1971db56661c28fb3dbc2776c9c5ee

33 8Oregon, S-T, W1908-1991, Undated

3cef99a2d8bcaacb20a27accab985d52

33 9Oregon, W, Z1977-1996, Undated

f6676b2bd88799d3d5ba0c228a821e5d

33 10Oregon, unidentified and multiple exec.1873-1977, Undated

f9a4a4eb3df3c0089964fc0506d2bc62

33 11Oregon, executions recorded in county and statewide records1951, Undated

243194b9e8d886c6ca8899f030d5cc0e

33 12Pennsylvania, A-B1858-1984, Undated

399fb0c89f7593cf3bb73f340ef9767b

33 13Pennsylvania, B1878-1988, Undated

d51afa5b24936a29cb4ca92c15f2b862

33 14Pennsylvania, B-C1894-1978, Undated

41f4c250d1e078264f4fa582312028e0

33 15Pennsylvania, C1799-1987, Undated

290051fd332ef5af0acb19d2a9ed5e91

33 16Pennsylvania, D1923-1977, Undated

9343fc14db699baa032c03df2ab1fcfd

33 17Pennsylvania, D1867-1987, Undated

a386f9e4ab09616e869724ed10c62d5d

33 18Pennsylvania, D-E1879-1990, Undated

3a89af2e5ea81f32f2cd6395c9d0df51

33 19Pennsylvania, E1920-1989, Undated

709e49f4f60384d834cea3c5ceb1a3d6

34 1Pennsylvania, E-F1866-1975, Undated

365a24d4f91873d2a87a0787fa01917a

34 2Pennsylvania, F-G1852-1987, Undated

76bdf75472a3f645b7a6007dab17730a

34 3Pennsylvania, G-H1901-1986, Undated

84d60446bb8b8c7d133f16877a40474e

34 4Pennsylvania, H1894-1997, Undated

b6b255eeda804e2b3e1eba749b79fd09

34 5Pennsylvania, H-J1875-1985, Undated

27af51259302197584ae176b29e4278d

34 6Pennsylvania, J-K1878-1987, Undated

8bd9e5d0fb41e495d1e9cfb158b941ff

34 7Pennsylvania, K-M1822-1987, Undated

ddf4be65a5f32f69c3887b3f79601957

34 8Pennsylvania, M1808-1959, Undated

a9ed5f5c2f55d66a9899f1072b2c2490

34 9Pennsylvania, M1932-1987, Undated

01ac85822a71287d798c5746e5f0b11e

34 10Pennsylvania, M1832-1995, Undated

4d7f876b1c56835bbb011379b386a7e6

34 11Pennsylvania, P1866-1995, Undated

4ddbacaa9cf3bd8fb9c917ac5a6ec82d

34 12Pennsylvania, P1938-1957, Undated

db7ebac4348ee2e8b697ad04be14af2b

34 13Pennsylvania, P-R1909-1975, Undated

2146254ba7b31c36e623d675625b72ad

34 14Pennsylvania, R-S1878-1949, Undated

80f5677760980b71bbe4c11812cc8d38

34 15Pennsylvania, S1853-1995, Undated

7112a0440712d9607c0446f74fb8df2d

34 16Pennsylvania, S-T1915-1956, Undated

5b6ba915af61101c5cd388a31cc87062

34 17Pennsylvania, T-U1824-1975, Undated

3da3ffbb22aa26db8f5de9531989d313

35 1Pennsylvania, V-W1908-1976, Undated

5d0881cdc48e162426ae44f66acd8e5a

35 2Pennsylvania, Z1985-1995

eb7c7f803ba8bff9be7052da123b6409

Oversized 11Pennsylvania and Minnesota newspaper accounts of executions1862, 1904, Undated

a7cc6cde73473d7b3d0a5c6de949578d

35 3Pennsylvania, unidentified and multiple executions1877-1970, Undated

9479835668a59a1b2407cf1d3453182a

35 4Pennsylvania, executions recorded in city, county and statewide records1866-1992, Undated

78127e906f843ae34eeec3893ce123a9

35 5Rhode Island, A-M1737-1988, Undated

ff7a54875171c10f4336ff5c466a4708

35 6Rhode Island, P-W1832-1988, Undated

87715e82aa6b0a54f7d1227690a103b7

35 7Rhode Island, unidentified and multiple executionsUndated

5a13022a5faf94bec42eb1867471803c

35 8Rhode Island, executions recorded in statewide records1974-1988

18e2a317c5045ad8c2ec1ac1fc24fcb9

35 9South Carolina, A-B1899-1996, Undated

aa51a388f9e92c66df07fe329a29187d

35 10South Carolina, B1875-1982, Undated

0f3f377f42a7073aa0e24a30de522815

35 11South Carolina, B-D1800-1984, Undated

f974d6b6d6bfc3553442814c4c2001ff

35 12South Carolina, D-F1820-1997, Undated

afa46c273db0e8ae3d8c5cd8e8a1996d

35 13South Carolina, G1908-1991, Undated

60688c584ac1298e35a80f5801e006c4

35 14South Carolina, H, J1809-1988, Undated

c39f1c878a4f7714b409ce022a2f2533

35 15South Carolina, J-M1791-1996, Undated

b96b815f0c51b96a16770633b19a7141

35 16South Carolina, M-P, R1846-1996, Undated

6b248ee08bba4e995e37bc91a42faaf4

35 17South Carolina, R-S1909-1998, Undated

9a9143aa0ef3881cf1817a0a87cf75e1

35 18South Carolina, S-T1876-1998, Undated

3f06fcfa210a5e8c9075833278edc010

35 19South Carolina, T, V-W, Y1785-1998, Undated

114c1380f277f76c10fe4a896eb344b0

35 20South Carolina, unidentified executionsUndated

9e00014beb2eb1e6a5d71dfd5f5b4f3d

35 21South Carolina, multiple executions1893-1982, Undated

9186594e4b4a7b50dc7ac0ca7c408110

36 1South Carolina, multiple executions1877-1987, Undated

1286c32672dcd5738fbff0d04c71fb2a

36 2South Carolina, executions recorded in city and county histories1892-1987, Undated

fa43ad5a0fdaf0ac7dc6dffd6e1c705e

36 3South Carolina, executions recorded in statewide records1963-1981, Undated

b92c572270430fe1dd5ac7e0b45eb030

36 4South Carolina, unconfirmed executions1793-1832, Undated

7e529f7b767833a0f7c748fab0941968

36 5South Dakota1902-1992, Undated

a28bd1f94451b7860e11f5d0a8f51b16

36 6Tennessee, A-B1826-1981, Undated

fa7d1bbf840ee864cf0ff7fc943305a5

36 7Tennessee, B-C1843-2000, Undated

7a2526cdc413a0065be2e3a98d9baa9d

36 8Tennessee, D-H1879-1997, Undated

419c773ab332a0eb854ace0271fdf143

36 9Tennessee, H1843-1964, Undated

873f3f14feaedddef9b23be45925cbc5

36 10Tennessee, J-K1801-1991, Undated

39f516f625a22062fddb819d1b9d7474

36 11Tennessee, L-N1867-1983, Undated

1d6075d5753cc7b0a4f326cd21567cf0

36 12Tennessee, O-S1819-1992, Undated

5f2b056fe18b57dd8101768be668728c

36 13Tennessee, T-Y1883-1960, Undated

5834b05635da7d1a52591ffe45692354

36 14Tennessee, multiple executions1890-1939, Undated

aac1accf0ad8e33bf227300dffd3efbc

36 15Tennessee, executions recorded in city and county histories1946-1983, Undated

2f719b6ea58c1635a841ee607b72157b

36 16Tennessee, executions recorded in statewide records1886-1982, Undated

8964ab2dfa9e8606aa6f1fe7cf403e71

36 17Texas, A1879-1995, Undated

9b73e2bc2b3d880dcfc4b683a9749796

36 18Texas, A-B1907-1997, Undated

8c6e18e2fc54e0344a25717dcb637f21

36 19Texas, B1883-1997, Undated

e970b779a8c13d129e59b89a54c88705

37 1Texas, B1873-2002, Undated

5beacf80ccc302fc3ee683c3a03e8f2a

37 2Texas, B1861-1998, Undated

097c816ba8c7738d3c9c90c533cfa996

37 3Texas, B1878-1997, Undated

c90ba29bd75b33e6e4a58504657fd7ad

37 4Texas, B1879-1997, Undated

29b93797ba9a054d56391fc7104ab085

37 5Texas, B1918-1963, Undated

887a96e98d99b752f9a644a927bd6234

37 6Texas, B-C1898-1991, Undated

5fcb53ab29355eae50def625c773715d

37 7Texas, C1880-1997, Undated

4546e46640564978d81557caa24fdd72

37 8Texas, C1879-1997, Undated

b36a12cb63a4500c72568b27a6285813

37 9Texas, C-D1874-1994, Undated

ab1b1bdc33a0ebabd07f8645219d4d7e

37 10Texas, D1884-1999, Undated

3f2a78f716609a6c1460b93962b3a0bd

37 11Texas, D-E1923-1999, Undated

257b39b29495967a2d60f7764076640e

37 12Texas, E1955-1992, Undated

5ac03e3cf0ec3d72935447398fe15299

37 13Texas, F1891-1999, Undated

58551a56d42beecfe941214023c93dde

37 14Texas, G1879-1997, Undated

7d303434a114b9a79649dd5824184df4

37 15Texas, G1885-1974, Undated

9527985ba8557d15c055f4bed40812bf

37 16Texas, G1922-2000, Undated

8a5d772035cf0c4f0b1807cd8eabf01b

38 1Texas, G-H1878-1994, Undated

c161b6227a736a3a02ee230faf5a02c4

38 2Texas, H1900-1997, Undated

ac95fa0ed2f82231c7aef8efdb3139b3

38 3Texas, H1871-1995, Undated

8399466799ba33eb2d31751c052065cf

38 4Texas, H1938-1998, Undated

baf328ae57bd260c2231c1f9ef67fe6d

38 5Texas, H1892-1973, Undated

a0f91725ed55212e53f0b3d532c56247

38 6Texas, H, J1915-2000, Undated

ac8c85839d8d90830008e160ebd8e2a1

38 7Texas, J1948-1997, Undated

dfb8b4791796453d6ae9cc068a002a93

38 8Texas, J1838-1995, Undated

47e365aa6d6d641102e0a24dffd637f9

38 9Texas, J-K1898-1993, Undated

1edaaec6b152fd00c6af6d84ed637b0b

38 10Texas, K-L1901-1997, Undated

85fb122fddf3b4a00a52f7d5c5503a68

38 11Texas, L1877-1997, Undated

b71a256b0166e8ed70b4b315faf39b40

38 12Texas, L-M1862-1998, Undated

1d050448eb06beba1cd256141e453d5c

38 13Texas, M1896-1995, Undated

b34a74d85e2f892712554d562cff5a8a

38 14Texas, M1889-1995, Undated

6cfd5d61ecebcc1e308f481a3d7699a6

38 15Texas, M1869-1998, Undated

de7a04194f7a65e6e2bfc1d4fccc077c

38 16Texas, M1934-1997, Undated

11393632e01fca29616dfd6a98a0beb8

39 1Texas, M1898-1987, Undated

522d899fe772388b430d4f449b3f3abd

39 2Texas, M-O1880-1998, Undated

cef81bb47033a83459ebfeb4df532a61

39 3Texas, O-P1878-1900, Undated

de31ce570f831b79651747eeb8403875

39 4Texas, P1926-1993, Undated

a633c894ba2231d3e26a1d7c3cd784c0

39 5Texas, P-R1901-1998, Undated

b3272a1744e6ddb5e2e0187ccbd349aa

39 6Texas, R1885-1997, Undated

7e2b045487f58f9f8037bdd49ecb364e

39 7Texas, R1926-1998, Undated

ba00d5aa386d668c18cfb9b254044cf5

39 8Texas, R-S1913-1995, Undated

ce64e287b5c071cf7748af757fa1380b

39 9Texas, S1893-1997, Undated

753673bcaa8de75bfa65034142078a78

39 10Texas, S1891-1991, Undated

384737c7d7cf1efa03524bee3bffc04c

39 11Texas, S1878-1997, Undated

e53c1e4e355730e857135e1a40a45a81

39 12Texas, S-T1882-1998, Undated

439f1c1ecdb43d48594884df1d64321f

39 13Texas, T-V1879-1998, Undated

0d49e426f56a1380c1d47a8ba2ca0ac5

39 14Texas, V-W1882-1995, Undated

186921a003d931cb0f0198e15366a04b

39 15Texas, W1886-1997, Undated

25603b22dd5e0bb9e81a185b1eddb1a8

39 16Texas, W1947-1993, Undated

e3e6b858e8c5fa9ae4826654d494b44e

40 1Texas, W1908-1995, Undated

49ad6214b03fdc879d08200a09882c4e

40 2Texas, W-Y1886-1997, Undated

d4499c03f6c395cb4bc6225c3c5856a5

40 3Texas, multiple executions1924, 1968, 1984

80c6320bb195996606982270043e1fb3

40 4Texas, executions recorded in city histories1968-1985, Undated

2944dc2716d0bf2c2117007afab4b735

40 5Texas, executions recorded in county histories1882-1988, Undated

8a14be2f4b8dff38605e69e63092cd74

40 6Texas, executions recorded in county histories1936-1995, Undated

555dea26e72a364f9ed887e7db6b3e73

40 7Texas, executions recorded in county histories1949-1982, Undated

034e0f1a1b61e7569f711c76b8fce19b

40 8Texas, executions recorded in statewide records1948-1998, Undated

fffc4be51eb1afa9833a2ec7d3fe02ac

40 9Texas, unconfirmed and possible executions1898-1995, Undated

c660208cab3b302cfc36c40712ea671b

40 10Utah, A-C1922-1996

079dc067d3b40d118884f83bc3396f3f

40 11Utah, C-F1888-1984, Undated

a377ac4f711c9de7ff5d9d3a597f7284

40 12Utah, G-F1887-1994, Undated

56e2ace30bc69c078de477b6b68af9d0

40 13Utah, K-M1869-1997, Undated

ebd92fcfd4e0e533d68edb3c89dd95a8

40 14Utah, N-W1879-1999, Undated

a259b66a5b1b2f3ac088014b438fb17c

40 15Utah, executions recorded in statewide records1951-1975, Undated

c8516137acbea646859d050cc05b0575

40 16Vermont, A-M1839-1985, Undated

5d6683bc10bdefccc9d3c7f332caa37a

40 17Vermont, M-W1867-1975, Undated

d16020fec8f03656dbaf644af35be5a2

40 18Vermont, executions recorded in statewide recordsUndated

cf3f0841cc8edfab20071e006ef10f42

40 19Virginia, A1795-1981, Undated

9fe4aaa9a81a6a4470a1e74ac6d78ecd

40 20Virginia, A-B1805-1995, Undated

a91d9cff99f301dcf5fc8db220b9cde8

40 21Virginia, B1791-1997, Undated

a7565b2cc6789bc6bf1d953ba4e58fc7

41 1Virginia, B1922-1990, Undated

0f08f037882d12fa5b5a56cf5c0ceb02

41 2Virginia, B-C1815-1997, Undated

4cb416002995b349007f95c7e6f3448f

41 3Virginia, C1787-1991, Undated

8394e3d03bcac45becdbaff1c982fb18

41 4Virginia, C1887-1992, Undated

4254bd5719ca1f5beb3fdb68bbb4c02f

41 5Virginia, C1821-1996, Undated

b990cb36497423b88d47d43833e78dd6

41 6Virginia, D-E1765-1998, Undated

90069f321bdb941dc8f26d546c4336ea

41 7Virginia, E-F1806-1992, Undated

ecaf82c08f0a24a1a5e6e06bf881cc2a

41 8Virginia, F-G1796-1999, Undated

88ea0117649747f705c264c95f50e8be

41 9Virginia, G-H1900-1997, Undated

31ed33398d0ed1088276198125ca2faa

41 10Virginia, H1822-1996, Undated

ba00aac5e77289b42e5da306b805e770

41 11Virginia, I-J1818-1992, Undated

25881c25608d46b2af34e3c1448c2b4e

41 12Virginia, J-L1883-1991, Undated

c29c900d4fc6f1e06f6ba1485d159a96

41 13Virginia, L-M1896-1985, Undated

2c41d44e6f7a75150a448a5f73b92642

41 14Virginia, M1808-1997, Undated

ac9bdac1b663e70de6c2b12215fad292

41 15Virginia, N-P1772-1999, Undated

139b6089ec752bfd727ae849e30c974b

41 16Virginia, P, R1813-1993, Undated

e7850ced65d0f3f5de0285e92c3e90df

42 1Virginia, R-S1801-1997, Undated

e2fd37a52794c38581d0e6c6124c708b

42 2Virginia, S1902-1994

3123095bccb0f09009647840e24afb59

42 3Virginia, S-T1777-1998, Undated

9b995d2a45a6601a21a7c0cb4e47720f

42 4Virginia, T,V-W1805-1997, Undated

fee50c099c2c0e68b85b8a570ac5d4b3

42 5Virginia, W1807-1993, Undated

99ffb70e2a43698cc84f869432abb95f

42 6Virginia, W, Y1787-1999, Undated

275b9a904b784af312b9fe52462f1e11

42 7Virginia, unidentified executions1860-1990, Undated

f51ba85c2d0c5de0ffa320468e8724c0

42 8Virginia, multiple executions1778-1989, Undated

f69f42e0dc3caea6f783512bdc1ea023

42 9Virginia, multiple executions1951, 1993

02b4dfafbc4d52f98ce1e2df8e68db44

42 10Virginia, executions recorded in city histories1877-1989

d77efff305bccb093324477d03a9dbb2

42 11Virginia, executions recorded in county histories1870-1993, Undated

2005f09122b4762789eda03dda73f665

42 12Virginia, executions recorded in country histories1932-1978, Undated

970cf0641badaa6e038bf9e3ef2c2f25

42 13Virginia, slave executions recorded in statewide records1852, 1985, Undated

3b084b1b48d4a591daac5e9e0383030e

42 14Virginia, slave executions recorded in statewide records1911-1996, Undated

88a2900d9714d99e74320d769399ca9b

42 15Virginia, unconfirmed and possible executions1799-1958, Undated

98ebe7a395f5a2dbd92b1763eb3999c6

42 16Washington, A-F1886-1993, Undated

ec8cdb1f08d2fc9ae3817e879396a2fa

42 17Washington, H1936-1976, Undated

bf902e11a40c72af286662a063325d6c

42 18Washington, H-J1873-1987, Undated

6d827cea7fff1ac34e947a38330061b1

42 19Washington, L1901-1993

748fcedb456fb76ce7be8c6c1cf66362

42 20Washington, M-N1893-1997, Undated

4cde4abc1f70401b46bbcbbcb8f227b9

43 1Washington O-R1905-1951, Undated

84b7027d90203525b23e370b03323cc1

43 2Washington S1902-1976

bdf3d55c02b4724fa01434b11c5f3ea1

43 3Washington T-W1881-1984

324177695ce7057375a5a07ed2313367

43 4Washington, executions recorded in county and statewide records1959-1986, Undated

0f8d625940e84a68530067d9b0a17f79

43 5West Virginia, A-D1805-1995, Undated

84181de60071be9a77af62f76cd1551a

43 6West Virginia, E-K1881-1957, Undated

dc00d32234f53403f52f52c1203ad7d2

43 7West Virginia, M-P1887-1963, Undated

383aa64393f23c6b32c980144f1d43dd

43 8West Virginia, P-Y1824-1991, Undated

b282104017eff740d87b98eb84f6e453

43 9West Virginia, multiple executions1938-1958, Undated

e7e1a4b1645f2d5a91f60dc78a3d139d

43 10West Virginia, executions recorded in county and statewide records1958-2002, Undated

b9ec7ddcec48c38c0f44dee1524dadbb

43 11Wisconsin1846-1995, Undated

733754f645a7a3c83242997016eb82bc

43 12Wyoming, B-H1914-1992

9f73588262ade66c4e2a8ddfb896740e

43 13Wyoming, H1960-1993, Undated

81a48a18ab18dbd1d864919ca1ba908c

43 14Wyoming, H-Y1892-1997, Undated

5041f522e1c12036232d349122f6aafd

43 15Wyoming, executions recorded in statewide records1984, Undated

0f937465eee6f6007c3edbbbcc6694cc

43 16Executions, state unknownUndated

144eacdb27fafdd6cf12ad665e5367c0

43 17Multiple States, botched executions1996, 2005

30803186ff534eddc884efade3f13977

43 18Multiple states, crime notebooks 1-2Undated

7c2f74f451cfac925d9650e4ed716dc8

43 19Multiple states, crime notebooks 4-5Undated

f3142ea6ed5f61b0b0ac431ca25f2dad

43 20Multiple states, elimination of witnesses1988

4d91c0955b360c2c9d6b435ac7f16229

43 21Multiples states, excerpts fromCelebrated Criminal Cases of America1910

099156ae59ab3c771f1be062658911ba

43 22Multiple states, excerpts fromCriminal Justice in Colonial America1983

ff06238e2dcde4df835cc40c47469d92

43 23Multiple states, excerpts fromDesigns in Scarlet1939

40b5440dad82e1726ab748bb911f3125

43 24Multiple states, excerpts fromFirst Degree1960

8d9ea5379d89f671b536da3b07c23876

43 25Multiple states, excerpts fromImprisoned in America1973

952e682f4a7fa0b34bd62cf46aa2596c

43 26Multiple states, excerpts fromThe Journal of Negro History1916

5e2c2d2c803a510828ae35561c45010a

43 27Multiple states, excerpts fromThe Mold of Murder1961

defa43814ccd086ad8f52edf74eeb8f2

43 28Multiples states, excerpts fromThe Murderer and this Victim1961

a7d9e21104c3afd13a5324175a230568

43 29Multiple states, excerpts fromMysteries of Crime1870

2c0d2568a552ed756e5e888051c33a41

43 30Multiple states, excerpts fromNight Stick1947

ae8537f601829fa216243101a0837175

43 31Multiple states, excerpts fromRansom Kidnapping in America1978

bed3f708baaf751a0ab130e48a91ed56

43 32Multiple states, excerpts fromWomen Who Kill1980

9a8bd265219ac4aa204626569839175e

44 1Multiple states, executions by year1878-1880, 1882-1918, Undated

07362239f11f2351a741fca74cd2f426

44 2Multiple states, executions in Georgia and Virginia, newspapersUndated

c4e644e120086ea098d739b88d75d87f

44 3Multiple states, executions in Louisiana newspapersUndated

34d5cd5a8d714dd633a6b23f8b24cbf6

44 4Multiple states, executions in Maryland newspapersUndated

3144afe7bf83414cba4e46b9e0dcd282

44 5Multiple states, executions in Mississippi newspapersUndated

586f709125939e71c38d01a114d8df1d

44 6Multiple states, executions in New York newspapersUndated

9e0e51fcff871a0956a6109bccf343b2

44 7Multiple states, executions in Pennsylvania newspapersUndated

524d010154f47b1c58c491707cb2d462

44 8Multiple states, executions in Rhode Island newspapersUndated

e0bb8a0f9d4d380a8ff4c776b3d6e783

44 9Multiple states, executions in South Carolina, newspapersUndated

ebb94fe82d61c213a47b9686d2f10a01

44 10Multiple States, hangings1992-1993, Undated

c65e423767d2fc22b9399568fea9ada9

44 11Multiple states, innocents executed1988

4b646c830e50f9d1415b84fd1202784c

44 12Multiple states, juveniles executedUndated

6299a861ea75ac6c2f04f077347f07a6

44 13Multiple states, last executions pre-FurmanUndated

3d9fb480b41d8469c6ffffde28d642ed

44 14Multiple states, legal executions in the American South1987

2f9f2c3347e6871c2befd0366faa1789

44 15Multiple states, lists and notes on executions1985-1986, 1990, Undated

76d495b7c29b659370168dd520bc9ec6

44 16Multiple states, New England research1988, Undated

e0e16056af7fd20ae0d141ff11937071

44 17Multiple states, newspapers with two or more execution accounts1875-1995

b74deabfe35cb85d12b5d06d0f084d90

44 18Multiple statesThe Noose and the ChairUndated

a7dacac8d9908c6c3a4c5154fa5faf22

44 19Multiple states, record of Espy notes on various executionsUndated

c0e39994246f195e49e501240d1739da

44 20Multiple states, women executed1991, Undated
BoxFolderContentsDate

9f466fbd065d0c2b01c04e7b0011bd78

44 21Federal, A-B1790-1985, Undated

07d0e3beb4f7ae433640c12516ac52ee

44 22Federal, B-C1819-2002, Undated

78bb82b00bceb99abd77a169012b6a33

44 23Federal, D1936-1976, Undated

fb33709f580b130edea9d325add2521b

44 24Federal, D-F1820-1980, Undated

3777387dc0baf82ef0397c59b3681ccd

44 25Federal, G-H1831-1933, Undated

72828c443e98cac5bea26d96a834d1a4

44 26Federal, H1862-1991, Undated

b461fc98a134d9d0833fd45d8bc1b361

44 27Federal, H, J-M1860-1994, Undated

a1aa065b37cfe1f5181cf3e2901badc5

44 28Federal, M, O-P1930-2001, Undated

00c8708494dc81f317145813dc5b0f58

44 29Federal, R-S1902-1997, Undated

fcada2aab2baa0189add2e295d96fdc5

44 30Federal, S-T, W1877-1987, Undated

190e2fe562ac5487537de45100cfcc0c

44 31Federal, multiple executions1827-1997, Undated

3527dae4c118c2e168fc6b7d0f43d1b7

45 1Federal, multiple executions1876-1985, Undated

c6bdc545625fe196c8bcf60c4158c7e1

45 2Federal, Nazi saboteur executions1942-1991

e83c714d16d4a05983d45a0585f38594

45 3Federal, execution listsUndated

032cac7fe27bc449495f6e1cc265bf8c

45 4Federal, unconfirmed and possible executions1988, Undated
BoxFolderContentsDate

8e482b9738816f3d93f966f360d0882e

45 5Military, A-G1864-1998, Undated

eb23424f86759173cc48c573d13474bf

45 6Military, H-N1861-1989, Undated

fcc7f19430c0c77c1a3ddbe322c057d1

45 7Military, P-W1863-1989, Undated

0e4acb3fb9b1665b56ae7ed14c44f78e

Oversized 12Military death sentence ledgerUndated

c7b98c7616f6f5b8558e8ee5ca526dc8

45 8Military, multiple executions1829-1991, Undated

649f9ca902e68265c96b351d302eb759

45 9Military, multiple executions1863-1993, Undated

847808ad41e719c6e0ad4e4dc3e2df9f

45 10Military, multiple executions1945-1995, Undated

f99cea16bbd481d2c3aead37135c8cd9

46 1Military, multiple executions1951-1992, Undated

8440b4bf346e367f091888fe8915db1c

46 2Military unconfirmed and possible executions1862, Undated
BoxFolderContentsDate

07aa84f4a59b17cd997335cbdd90e621

46 3Native American tribal executions1823-1986, Undated
BoxFolderContentsDate

2abea4f4b2727050ed629b66298daaee

46 4International - Australia1948

b8dd1b96827502121816519a9380897b

46 5International - Canada1890-1960, Undated

81ff68918cafe52ff6a5e85606856c4d

46 6International - China1934

3f974fbfcbac72b6e9c0aa586dadd053

46 7International - Denmark1949

a2a905763955aa4c797d6f13fdc0e74a

46 8International - England1759-1969, Undated

e5eb2d1b28050ff89aea444bc10474fe

46 9International - France1937-1976, Undated

8e34e605e3143193b436b5c9db9be722

46 10International - Germany1935-1952

2a10fee26074790b37ec0a99fb31ea71

46 11International - HungaryUndated

f7d5a4d20f2222e64136ad92c09d77b6

46 12International - India1945, 1949

9e3918de465167957a1c5088eb5ad4ba

46 13International - Italy1948

88308958b124fbb5924b245c92fbdaf7

46 14International - Japan1937

56bbdf2334418f8b58f69c9843ce9dba

46 15International - Panama1946

e1efdaac9903457b5cd070fc5a65270e

46 16International - Philippines1992

b72f73c8fafe51fdf1c8080d0fb3bd8d

46 17International - Puerto Rico1900, 1902

2d813b938cd6f2acd4df4276efed62eb

46 18International - U.S. Virgin Islands1829, 1874, Undated
Quantity:  3.5 cu. ft.

Arranged alphabetically.

This series features administrative records of Watt Espy’s efforts to chronicle every government-sanctioned execution in the United States as part of his Capital Punishment Research Project. Espy was the only full-time employee of this organization although he worked with paid graduate assistants while at the University of Alabama School of Law.

Through correspondence, this series recounts Espy’s work at the university, including the tribulations of his work on the National Science Foundation grant to produce a dataset of executions in the United States and relations with his academic partner on the grant. Espy writes often of his difficulties with the dataset, outlining errors committed by others during the data entry process, such as using the wrong code for type of execution, misspelling prisoner names, and typing in incorrect dates. There are numerous computer printouts of the dataset.

The series also contains Espy’s work from his home in Headland. There are his hard-copy and handwritten ledgers listing the executions he researched and their particulars. Files document administrative activities, including issuing invoices, paying bills, and submitting a copyright registration request. Date books from 1986-1990 and 1995 describe research requests, appointments, talks, meetings and telephone conversations.

BoxFolderContentsDate

1738c73deeefa4e757e64906545176ae

47 1Advisory Board1984-1985, Undated

850c977397643b864bfa4356271237bf

47 2Bills recorded and paid1974-1977, 1993

44eac5c2754d3aa625101e78052d5edc

47 3Capital Punishment Research Project lists of confirmations1978, 1985, 1989-1992, 1996-1998

46402214e605b3fb8c1ae9088f17fdf9

47 4Codes for data entry for the Espy file1985, Undated

f88fc9a81c4cbe7893ba362fa94378a6

47 5Copyright registration1985

da14169f006d72bd4e23cb54f810e4eb

Oversized 2Data printouts of execution research study1984, 1985, 1987, 1990

da29f675f49c3986bb025109b9c0c6e2

Oversized 3Data printouts of execution research study1986

ab167ce560b6bd0573fc19f95c210a62

Oversized 4Data printouts of execution research study1987

5cfa28a5e4064a26a3e08b1bdb5b4625

47 6Death penalty in America: Current research1988

76523ef9045912faec02dc19a5c2fefa

47 7Espy file indexUndated

3bea6f2ab460c51be0680cd51e53a007

Oversized 5Espy handwritten ledger, chronological orderUndated

882bdb74e7776370f35e07054d2ef6e9

Oversized 6Espy handwritten ledger, chronological orderUndated

538ecb57101d5c21350d12cca8f5d38c

Oversized 7Espy handwritten ledger, by stateUndated

202056845106fab343291ed9e4b1f546

Oversized 8Espy personal datebooks1986-1990

c1dd5b394d89e16ba2f235c19711a3be

47 8 Executions in America: The Espy File 1987, Undated

6a470064d196e3f4f57846fb46b02a5b

47 9Form lettersUndated

bfa6bb4954d9e5a0476f5cece529731c

47 10Invoices issued1986-1991, 1993-1999

a7a614907b5070e4b305bfc8b8f632a4

47 11National Science Foundation grant publicity1984

54766ddf8ea23f9f76b3477772290235

47 12Price listUndated

e937122ce02b1415f48f2c0c2ed75fb2

47 13Press release from the University of Alabama1982

ff8c2ce2703a1b0a601951edd254c398

47 14Smykla1985, Undated

0aecbc04dfaf368656796c00c93cae6c

47 15University of Alabama Law school: hiring, tax and salary correspondence1977, 1983-1986

9e05aaa95804060f441ee271ef110803

47 16University of Alabama school of Law and National Science Foundation grant work1982-1985

6542dba2e624c071404984ce8eb218e2

47 17University of Alabama school of Law and National Science Foundation grant work1986-1987, 1989, Undated
Quantity:  6.5 cu. ft.

Arranged alphabetically.

The Watt Espy subject files contain a variety of materials that supplement information in the other series without necessarily being directly related. Researchers will find background information on the history of capital punishment, death penalty statistics, and a few files on crime in general. There are folders devoted to crime and punishment in many individual states and territories, though not all of them are represented. The subject files also contain information on the various methods of execution employed across the country, mainly hanging, gassing, electrocution, and lethal injection. Additionally, there are death penalty-related topics such as physician participation, editorial pieces dealing with ethics of capital punishment, execution of prisoners with low IQs, background materials on the death penalty in early America, and a few assorted death penalty research projects that Espy followed. There are also assorted photos, many of which feature inmates and prisons. Images of identified and unidentified individuals executed are presumed to be the ones that filled the walls of Espy’s house.

The subject files mainly are comprised of secondary source materials collected by Espy by virtue of his interest in the topics or actively used by him in his research. Occasionally there are entire photocopied books, or chapters of books, which have been retained due to the age and/or scarcity of the originals from which they were taken.

Many folders have items dated in the 1950s and earlier, some even to the 1800s, but those dates reflect the age of the content, not the documents themselves. Most of the papers in the subject files are photocopies obtained by Espy from the 1970s to the 1990s. Also, please note that the date spans in this series are not inclusive.

BoxFolderContentsDate

c07d16ad86b2ca15d994c400a7db25a6

48 1Agresti, David-- Research materials1940, 1979, Undated

3ff42bd5363ca7b637c93651038ed596

48 2-3Agresti, David-- Research materialsUndated

af084c80ef641ffd806f231e255e8a41

48 4Alabama1816, 1921, 1950-1953

1a38cb6a0e155a9443355319a8a475c6

48 5Alabama1896, 1913, 1975-1993

bd8c1767cdb45daf5841a823e5d3cae6

48 6Alabama, lynchings1871-1990, Undated

1e17305c2e3b4e67e4d77972f5e86d34

48 7Alabama, non-capital, A-M1841-2001

dafcd386448c05f011171b42b3031933

48 8Alabama, non-capital, O-Z1823-2001, Undated

94da0f9bcc06dd5f6b89b4a5453e1e20

48 9Alabama, non-capital, county and statewide records1870-1976, Undated

876b8cf193c342d6b286449d6043147e

48 10American Civil Liberties Union1976

612c4236b7739ef4f5d2c51bea1a3653

48 11Arizona1928-1943, 1974-1992

5556b6c19ee50141bb8fa28c3709fc71

48 12Arizona, non-capital1939-1998, Undated

879e19c816a741053fbf21fd0f5e52b6

48 13Arizona, lynchings1982, 1956, 1986

5296a45c16af33e5b960636e4dd9d058

48 14Arkansas1931, 1986-1992

d61bcfd7a6173102e6b2214e23c1cbd7

48 15Arkansas, non-capital1985-1986, Undated

660eb6c490748cd44ae7a57e9e14c189

48 16Arkansas, lynchings1874-1936

97bf2ff3659ae41c38221c442f15c7e1

48 17Bibliographies1930, 1970, 1982, 1983

37442f715d6ec4a6a6b910cef4beeae5

48 18California1882, 1891, 1931-1961, 1976-1995, Undated

c70af54284aab5209870478f5354a001

48 19California, lynchings1881-1992

59e947af2d286fe7a2c23b870093a947

48 20California, non-capital1933-1991

38191e9d75425027a4dcb45ee50f93e7

48 21Canada1973, 1987, Undated

bc39a825994a3bb6c9bbb20b9e7ddfe6

48 22Capital offenses in Mosaic codeUndated

a17be56532ddfe85581e0a1dd1ee515d

48 23Capital punishment, general1984-1990, Undated

047f47e17737aab253980f7ec9cdb3bc

48 24Capital punishment, general1949, 1967, 1981-1988, Undated

ce97aae4a75138b5b8f29d6c72a7fa7f

48 25Capital punishment, general1929, 1948, 1973-1988, 1990-1995, Undated

a9e10b6c49d9bfc6fe12004fd28ab6ec

48 26Capital punishment, general1942-1958, 1971-1989, 1993-1997, Undated

49f74fa725a20afe89cd2c7afaea98a1

48 27Capital punishment, general1930-1939, 1980-1989, Undated

33f9a0b7cf38ef782f806edc29edb35d

48 28Capital punishment, general1930-1939, 1979, 1980-1989, Undated

5d77158eeed953cac71f72dea2c2c950

48 29Capital punishment, general1909, 1957, 1985, 1996, Undated

93202b2969ecd065074d7868db20e9c0

49 1Capital punishment history1920-1962, 1985, 1989, 1994-1995, Undated

6f099cb1aa39f3a1f2098253ccadcf5f

49 2Capital punishment statistics1955, 1970, 1983-1988, 1999-2000

fca61107a098492668cd8da1de714d85

49 3Capital punishment statistics1973, 1975-1977

c0a8b90fd64d9a888c453ae693d8d363

49 4Capital punishment statistics1930-1970

b2b0f705b63b56665028de99948151ef

49 5Cartoons1988, 1990, 1998, Undated

6d177d516be00d8d9a81c60f1016e914

49 6Colonial period1928, 1933, 1945, 1958, 1975

ee18516840a0d13fa3c1588709542395

49 7Colonial period1971, 1974-1978, Undated

1c3f6f32ef308f950bfd44e9a7da0640

49 8Colorado1947, 1972, 1978, 1987-1996

39cec135cd1db8c0e37636f66f35629f

49 9Colorado, lynchings1879-1988, Undated

922c339ac2e3f6e54df63c312b70c375

49 10Colorado, non-capital1937-1966

c0cf49c3678a7ecee7e585967ab9dd18

49 11Connecticut1803, 1836, 1930-1965, 1972-1995

e1a147c952a798e1265406bce7787b89

49 12Connecticut, non-capital1948-1988, Undated

3955c80c552350f5dd80e9ae5dea6153

49 13Consensual execution1993, 1995, Undated

b392fe9f765aad168440c45838c0ea07

49 14Cook, Kerry Max1988-1994, Undated

d219946fc070145be238c492fa715902

49 15Cost of capital punishment1948, 1981, 1985-1998, Undated

8fc593ee5c1ba7ac753b720b9c6b7617

49 16Court decisions1985-1988, Undated

392c192d75f477df10ea0e6356d61200

49 17Crime general1932, 1943-1947, 1994

64ffc256da17c6fd57e5b77ea0d13ab4

49 18Death before execution date1901-1931, 1983-2001, Undated

47840bc652623f17c107b4ab4b6a1d5e

49 19Death penalty bridge week packet1993

1931a5ec7dbadbd94f30fe541d676c42

49 20Delaware1991

3216d51ac7f367cd64f41c28168d427a

49 21Deterrence1979, 1984, 1989-1990

c00afc4486020e7049d69d2ff733f87d

49 22Discrimination1953, 1984-1998, Undated

e1071ef8fbbda65dd80110724c440b36

49 23District of Columbia1928-1946, 1960, 1978

1ab41006f750242def95f7342b20be7e

49 24District of Columbia, non-capital1864-1937

3859856f7a75f6e54d90ab952a0ff427

49 25Duddings prison story1918

5e1d9ce208e52d06d81b19a993239454

49 26Electrocutions1880, 1931-1965, 1973-1985, 1990-1996, Undated

300248275e7db893db549d950c56cad1

49 27Espy research materials1927, 1984-1995, Undated

f7bd25c52cad08c28918832b7c64782f

49 28Espy research materials1980, Undated

afbe07b2f4b19339bfa586d9e782004f

49 29Espy research materialsUndated

b41abc1d7bb9b96ed1baf3336ae9325b

49 30Espy research materials1985

b0b42984077530ab7984ea4a47d1cc1c

50 1Espy research materials1979, Undated

f2d6440ce11ba17c30fd58495bafa7a1

50 2Espy research materials1977, 1990, Undated

a60d13776215d44b68ba1114892fcbdc

50 3Espy research materials1972, Undated

45352c9ad40617a04c84da5b6381c8dc

50 4Espy research materials1939, 1962, 1973, 1978, Undated

8093f830bc33eebafbe45883ff8811c4

50 5Execution witnesses1931, 1941

66fba42c1719d726e0d030f7cc1879df

50 6Executions1937-1957, 1983-1991

036e4ae90b29d32999e15e0ececcf32a

50 7Executions: pro and con1922-1956, 1974-1997, Undated

8fdfc7d0f1c3a5c728d56d186c41ffe6

50 8Executions: pro and con1988-1996, Undated

da2edda76a2b126a933f843ad2f78ec2

50 9Federal executions1986, 1989, 1995

297829f744ecdb52b6d924e989faf722

50 10Federal, non-capital1936, 1963, 2000

a96d0889d95168570ed58571cdd4cf8e

50 11Federal legislation1970, 1986, Undated

ca2a4510e95661d604bfbfe27f2620e8

50 12Florida1923-1932, 1949, 1979-1993

285ae6ccbbf87392a9cdfb54915fe812

50 13Florida1973-1998, Undated

4e3cab0168a15127fb6efb852df8e6d0

50 14Florida, lynchings1837-1994, Undated

49d545af34d81571a06c3024ad00c76e

50 15Florida, non-capital A-S1896-1999, Undated

1c68b5ac8dd6c69efebdd6c4b4f3663c

50 16Florida, non-capital V-Y1907-1975

09e7d6fd315ab04c6bbbb5c3b79f8180

50 17Florida, non-capital, county and statewide records1984-1998, Undated

4a6b1d8a8559eb738c651aad73171a72

50 18Foreigners1997, 2001

353b02658f23c1975d0fa0b62d684d4a

50 19Forgiveness1996, 1999

aa187316052e7478d1a335f827f3ef58

50 20Gas executions1935, 1947, 1988-1993

41a580d122b96279a284bd456c0e2fe7

50 21Grigson, James/ Dr. Death1988, 1992

aa80002bcc9d99d67c2ce0d0794e37ac

50 22Georgia1931-1935, 1973-1993

8aa8bfad9f7c6dd5c42a3d379533df3e

50 23Georgia, lynchings1891-1988, Undated

881a92684ea6e410aa320ecbb6ff869d

50 24Georgia, non-capital1859-1987, Undated

3517d7b139656f5026319e69cc152ab2

50 25Guillotine1956

d2a1fe3108701e69e5187a3b5dafa50d

50 26Hanging1878, 1905, 1933-1948, 1978-1996

ef9f4dbd8ef392945372cae19c80192d

50 27Hawaii, non-capital1936

893157f31edaca1d20250431277baee6

50 28Idaho, non-capital1943, 2001

67e9d2965f323cf642495b86f4bdac07

50 29Illinois1986, 1990-1994

1d7e46ee8eebd85aabd72fc4ef0a2bbc

50 30Illinois1927-1957, 1973-1993

d99363a557385329257c29075e525c09

50 31Illinois, lynchings1844-1933

ab49a04d1661c858dc8453a0b24eb14c

50 32Illinois, non-capital A-M1934-1998, Undated

ca1ddce0e91b6d644b50dde34bb5da0a

50 33Illinois, non-capital N-W1936-1990

3b9c647d1663256320a225f8152ad9ac

50 34Images, Death Row portraits of Mark JenkinsonUndated

a9d720d6461098c39df2e0377169a720

50 35Images, execution invitations, gravestones, reward posters, historic sitesUndated

579429887bb50ff5c6356cfb9d2563c4

50 36Images, identified portraits of individuals executed likely from the walls of Espy's home1938-1994, Undated

5aefbfaa9861307634d29bf09f964479

50 37Images, identified portraits of individuals executed likely from the walls of Espy's homeUndated

a512917ce3b9be7d3c9d9572a7942186

Oversized 13Images, identified portraits of individuals executed- OversizedUndated

5e033b514887d76948ae5caa4c425c2c

51 1Images, portraits of persons not executed but who were or are on death row1979, 1983-1985, Undated

17be303906d8527dfeb0c300491dbd39

51 2Images, unidentified executions and execution equipment1977, 1982, 1988, Undated

c77319bff1ff185b198751cc5946ae7e

51 3-5Images, unidentified images, possibly of persons executed and taken from the walls of Espy's homeUndated

2af70692e3e24acbf2ac34a78972d629

51 6Indiana1937, 1988-1991, 1996

ae7f49fddd5d1ad8be494fe994fa2828

51 7Indiana, lynchings1890-1993, Undated

fd45a465707417baa8fa0705318b9b01

51 8Indiana, non-capital1930-2001

2b18180ce843a269386b48c3d6fa85dc

51 9Innocents1951, 1979, 1984-2001, Undated

0412edf904cb2f75839c55af286a8754

51 10Iowa1991-1992

6327baf21355f132b9fd1fc722ecee07

51 11Iowa, lynchings1857, 1875, 1984, Undated

e19bda9fd06d3d563ea6a5e4d7ceb655

51 12Iowa, non-capital1943-1968, Undated

d00ee4e3c4ba99225bdd3ff32c6bb5d7

51 13Insanity1941, 1947, 1972

99ab1bd812b71fea058bacd92b99c6d7

51 14International, non-capital1979

6065fd0a732dbacdbef5bb399e6a3531

51 15Judge Isaac Parker and Fort Smith, Arkansas1908, 1949, 1970-1977

41919fb12bef714c072012429bf38d4b

51 16Jurors1945, 1986, 1990, 1997

d4a698c9f75dad26700863e00cefd8de

51 17Juveniles1954-1956, 1977, 1983-1999

c322665a7a17213d36238de5f8b6debe

51 18Kansas1938, 1963-1998

574349bc1ce40e2e4ed45e7f943cb5aa

51 19Kansas, lynchings1902-1988

7ae46d1d149fa0fdfdfc28ccc0f984ac

51 20Kansas, non-capital1991

5d6bbeea73f14e175c21fff32b173296

51 21Kentucky1874-1900, 1935-1951, 1970, 1980-1992

0fe3e2f03b2afc3c863e68c823bb75ba

51 22Kentucky1892, 1924-1954, 1989-1992, Undated

4bb363fc34a5b9b09c0c9e7fa6c8e43d

51 23Kentucky, lynchings1858-1990, Undated

3e5c334d7b67104746d19a16e1e39388

51 24Kentucky, non-capital1901-2000, Undated

8a3abd58210ac67012496ac5ad303549

51 25Last meals1947, 1990, 1998

a0b6a40d0c984c3fac2b6ef99927b932

51 26Last words1944, 1992, 1995, Undated

0fccc53f3e36faab05074909afe808ed

51 27Law enforcement killed on duty1958, 1970, 1984-1986, Undated

838e5ff742e66ea486cc0334cc73e09c

51 28Lethal injection1979-1993, Undated

5e9df9bb3d54d457768f9b7791937e66

51 29Louisiana1925-1941, 1970, 1982-1983

a240968cd69ca87417700ef1b206be65

51 30Louisiana1874-1890, 1930-1961, 1970-1989

719ddc790321700294d4b838a671698c

51 31Louisiana, lynchings1811-1979, Undated

1ae7c0ef879811b93d2e3009317479cc

51 32Louisiana, non-capital1882-1998, Undated

cfc361229976f9b11ded1f568abf27eb

51 33Low IQ1988-1989

029b0f1db99db3f0bceea92d2bd74af3

51 34Lynchings1962, 1969

f1b7c3123d0699b7c5177416f3be99a6

51 35Lynchings1894, 1899, 1934, 1937

496bdec0487eff3b3877f36fe71d25a7

51 36Lynchings, the crisis articles1910-1926

8d52e2d46c6be961fbd00cc5d5fe4880

51 37Lynching statistics1912-1970, Undated

794a48f5882725e226f784af01d6c17b

51 38Maine, non-capital1938

9b4d577d7ca9dedb94411bbefeff1e56

51 39Maryland1936-1967, 1977-1991, Undated

3511b8f622e7594465219d22069d6d2f

51 40Maryland, lynchings1880, 1934

58f534fbc5a77f4de6abe9ea0fc8fdd9

51 41Maryland, non-capital1934, 1996

7546863423f24a4ea16c204bed977a58

52 1Massachusetts1850-1854, 1934-1958, 1977-1999, Undated

7c47e94751c87b5cfbfd8ad5a93af91e

52 2MassachusettsUndated

239369e6278885be5baa3d3bcbb5a4ee

52 3Massachusetts1936-1957

b44b1d5c72eb18babf40ee9eb415c683

52 4Mentally disabled1989, 1997, 2001, Undated

b966c32cc8a00378ea40aa5199fc43ee

52 5Michigan1948-1978, Undated

e2123503af71eed03508b8453a45856c

52 6Michigan, non-capital1935-1946

f0d381ecea6faf41e172c1d7de62e2df

52 7Military1940-1959, 1977-1996, Undated

127ae7579b911b0dd4c8c14ed15f66a6

52 8Military, non-capital1945, 1990

64d6b389b9c4d043847e68197fd12818

52 9Minnesota, lynchings1882

e771003492909c33e68e9910de18caea

52 10Minnesota, non-capital1942

74cc993cb1bca2987c28965d2ae88a79

52 11Mississippi1928-1940, 1951, 1969-1987, Undated

b472d7fa6ddd8fd56eba811d93cb2db3

52 12Mississippi, lynchings1892-1959

60fe7a4a013909986b1a291459b12a84

52 13Mississippi, non-capital1934-1985, Undated

b288cdabff70b1cf5bff7f89f3b08223

52 14Missouri1882, 1929-1952, 1987-1998

9ebeee8b713bcc8d956808ce39daacc3

52 15Missouri, lynchings1896-1942

5ebec19c510bf1fd5a7870c62b08b0a7

52 16Missouri, non-capital1902-1998, Undated

e7f848caf515c4b81a35e1843b5e527c

52 17Montana, non-capital1900, 1954

c22ef0f212d00b86a772048f57d06812

52 18Multiple state, lynchings1880, Undated

337eb307dd546b74db2429b7b41ce6ef

52 19 Murder, Incorporated 1939-1945, 1951, 1994

5587967d8663e8263d219ddc7a63741b

52 20 Murder, Incorporated 1937, 1940-1945, 1951-1965

8c525fdc4ba96c480a3468dbd6d3c986

52 21Nebraska, lynchings1890, Undated

856644f094bb4e57b9cb75469659a7cb

52 22Nebraska, non-capital1939, 1951, 1998

c9ab7940dfbf799fdda65970caf807ac

52 23Nevada1991, 1995, Undated

debc599aadcc23b4d3dc834dea6d8963

52 24Nevada, lynchings1985-1987

8e2e67a52a614d81bc5df9fd51d39da7

52 25Nevada, non-capital1955-1998

e6e682080559330a6ec563366c5a4fe3

52 26New Hampshire1955, 1974-1990, Undated

7ac9679667e239e6d05e255da812d5be

52 27New Hampshire, non-capital1955

75415e716bfd1a95e23dc1687f1cb29a

52 28New Jersey1954, 1978, 1986, 1990

d850bbde62395eab22647403cfbefea1

52 29New Jersey, non-capital1903-1996

218c307339b2e6a4b8430802a85353a1

52 30New Mexico1948, 1953, 1977-1991

78f6a7a57764b9401c316915f3be9830

52 31New Mexico, lynchings1970, Undated

30dbe330f220b984516c75af6f192155

52 32New Mexico, non-capital1981

ab674612ffbd1e8e885955dc836a50ac

52 33New York1930-1963, 1978-1995, Undated

b475ad9d4eba0d95989bfc9c76700b7e

52 34New York, non-capital, A-M1934-1996, Undated

a06d29481940f27faa30c5efc288bf26

52 35New York, non-capital, O-W1937-1988

42ff81b0fa0e21e45286eb1819028022

52 36New York, non-capital statewide records1946, Undated

2c0138ea3d57c0f2b363465563f348fc

52 37North Carolina1925-1945, 1964-1993, Undated

06aae65c17595f4b1fc2c5de14254e30

52 38North Carolina, lynchings1921, 1986

2dfdb245336827ccd276a0bb3584601d

52 39North Carolina, non-capital1926-1970, Undated

7c9eeb2f832aabf03bc3268d48b8c10b

52 40North Dakota, lynchingsUndated

3e5d535fe36d99d8c5dbc9074e579f38

52 41North Dakota, non-capital1956

22ffaf6ae092bd0dd3d38434bc950793

52 42Official Detective articles1934-1938, 1953

990ba46ccea5d52831eff005f69fc6b0

52 43Ohio1889, 1891, 1922-1950, 1983-1995, Undated

1e84ba819f8964c39631c72967f8432d

52 44Ohio1889, 1891, 1922-1950, 1983, Undated

958d5df444b422d80e9752453ce451dc

52 45Ohio1960-1973, 1982, Undated

f9f61fbf6c8163e762d995c756f54996

52 46Ohio1961, 1973, 1991, 2000, Undated

0c6fc2f7aa4a37b45a10e6636695e582

53 1Ohio, lynchings1895-1918

0b05c4b014f57e845ac153c3f505b003

53 2Ohio, non-capital, B-R1933-1975, Undated

f19b9f5ef0a5514120534961d76344d0

53 3Ohio, non-capital, S-W1934-1993

e25800557a36f57851886a1bed3076b1

53 4Ohio, non-capital, statewide1991

07406028d9061d7e122f05fcf81d1cc6

53 5Oklahoma, lynchings1880-1913

8522675f16ee92c0e2a6b57598e38013

53 6Oklahoma, non-capital1940-1999

20eaa91abbc0d85d37832aac3445f8c4

53 7Oregon1935, 1952, 1970-1997

b5d05e3bf93d4cef5b9b35633368e342

53 8Oregon, non-capital1939, 1946, 1948

843aed812170d20997e36cd01d9eefbd

53 9Pain during execution1990-1994

73217ddd50a5869c45e0a0982e72412a

53 10-11Pennsylvania1944-1949, 1966-1968, 1984, Undated

b0ca18e9815cd2c75ce7c2e97e5da032

53 12Pennsylvania1891, 1942-1998, Undated

2c1cda46c5f269553eb0101b0886f91c

53 13Pennsylvania, non-capital1931-1998

2435b8ecbab817d204c35516d5b60605

53 14Philippines1989

a0919fd89dc93e8dd68aeaadb84a9418

53 15Physician participationUndated

eb7cba9d74f515a9b1ca281081b8d1b4

53 16Prejean, Sister Helen1990, 1996-1997

ec75714f2e23d74d6ec764d6b1089ac9

53 17Prison life1942, 1970-1971, 1987-1998

c599e3655e2e8cb92267a0102fed7607

53 18Psychological Perspectives1968, 1986, Undated

e42ce39d5aa277405242f66523826953

53 19Quality of death row defense1987, 1990, 1998

c5e399d91c944236db146e84eb51c29d

53 20Real Detective magazine articles1931, 1933, 1934

965a922170f6a7aa368a5588472f0048

53 21Religious views1941, 1988-2000

e62bc05203b38189acac276d349a71d5

53 22Rhode Island1989, 1995

b09e6018df262338b11a680d876d3611

Oversized 14Signed pen-and-ink drawing of electric chair1992

4c506cebae45507031ce5eb39f384f52

53 23-24Slavery1896, 1921, 1939, 1966-1976, 1980

d3447d12a3b175edf9f422f55a12de56

53 25South Carolina1950-1962, 1982-1996

319ddef456b99246b4bc3c39b620ef3d

53 26South Carolina, lynchings1857-1902, Undated

90de47b8308932619b48667ece96841c

53 27South Carolina, non-capital1935-1989, Undated

cff28fe8b520481aa3eab5d43db495b5

53 28South Dakota1942, 1985

9d65f6f75f031c5a72a160923a3a6e07

53 29South Dakota, lynchings1885

03def54d1a5b14960bdb0e416c5a2bdc

53 30South Dakota, non-capital1937

7cc569f0402e4f62a867368fec5e569f

53 31Supreme court decisions1969, 1983-1988, Undated

6f0ed6f1cff00cb941f6c07ed64b1ab9

53 32Tennessee1942, 1949, 1971-1992, Undated

1e3146dbe172c45b6913ac035d770af8

53 33Tennessee, lynchings1878-1985

0adadb1bd3b647f43dddcb0e07e93b14

53 34Tennessee, non-capital1936-1937, 1974, 1983

3c9f0f30a9e37e6856e3e113901e8680

53 35Tesla, NikolaUndated

caf26627235ee61d35b70766a7b40f01

53 36Texas1905, 1932-1940, 1967-1995, Undated

850baa44e14572ce9b3c9eb0c9b2f388

53 37Texas1895, 1972-1998, Undated

6a4693299e540dd5970258161f6ef515

53 38Texas1983-1999, Undated

c86024192ecd8d6d154a20997cab8568

53 39Texas, lynchings1858-1994, Undated

5a71a0ea10266f812148a020b47bc95b

53 40Texas, non-capital1879-2001

61ecd69c5b93dcdd986db664bb243ee1

53 41Thomas Albert petition1985

1933b520d55448041d33a7a413e97285

53 42Torture1986, 1998

89ee93cdf66a3e8259b0bb7b6a700ea7

Artifact-box 1Trading cards, opened and unopened1992

402648de3f8906afdd503f5ff50121e8

53 43True Detective series by Luke S. May1932-1940

6f24b0467d62e72b0e1ac3fd498fa45c

54 1True Detective articles1931, 1933, 1934, 1946

1a4ddfe3d9cfa88c092eb0b1e41ef044

54 2Utah1992

6c50d3d4214066b8792fff641f4eef9f

54 3Utah, lynchings1863

369b68f1d60fad565361ecbe6dd31250

54 4Utah, non-capital1945

12e969058b5d33e9d6f75e108ea8af3c

54 5Van Raalte Project1985

ff6edcc21f863f7b608908322d7ebc88

54 6-7Virginia1962, 1985, 1998

0d68665fa89f12d215cddbda7a7a8ce8

54 8Virginia1965, 1985-1992

2c00777ebb4eb04a84de8dc51e982b5f

54 9Virginia, lynchings1936, Undated

e5f782440f90312d7fb0a5234b65f665

54 10Virginia, non-capital1935-2001, Undated

123804d4fd4980f56f7ebcf16fc918f3

54 11Wardens office notices and death penalty procedures1963-1964

82313289c02b77ecf19802fce4399954

54 12Washington1952, 1960, 1980-1989, Undated

48596eb8aa6d9d693cfd102a9602f1ee

54 13Washington, lynchings1891-1975

0b52779dbd37cd44205f26d4f3ad921d

54 14Washington, non-capital1936-1960

2933709fe184fbe9d9f1470f46f0b367

54 15West Virginia1932, 1994, Undated

5c889a45b99bdf75be91019a3bbf71f7

54 16West Virginia, lynchings1957, Undated

94b5a7b553bc61721363d5f291fca3b0

54 17Williams, WayneUndated

3067977110d9482f2a1c33808454c73a

54 18Wisconsin1958, 1989, 1995

ebf3dfd099f1fca2eae954cb17c907bc

54 19Wisconsin, non-capital1932, 1940, 1957

1d7f8078a6d1a0bf75de782f476ffc74

54 20Women1930-1967, 1984-1996

43f7bd5711206e6ad4bdd1b24aef83d5

54 21Wyoming1932, 1966
Quantity:  7.5 cu. ft.

Arranged alphabetically.

Watt Espy sent and received a significant amount of correspondence as part of his work on the Capital Punishment Research Project. The majority of correspondence, however, was not organized when it arrived at the University at Albany. The archivists elected to arrange it into two groups: files devoted to prominent or regular correspondents, and general correspondence. The former includes key academics (Michael Radelet, Hugo Bedeau, Margaret Vandiver), attorneys (The California Appellate Project, NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Ohio Public Defender’s Office), death penalty abolitionists and advocacy group executives (Rev. Joe Ingle, Sister Helen Prejean, Henry Schwarzschild), prominent prisoners and their families (Kerry Max Cook, Gary McGivern), and researchers who frequently corresponded with Espy. There were also a small number of files that Espy organized by subject, such as letters to and from prisoners, telephone inquiries, or correspondence relating to executions in a particular state, and the archivists retained this order and kept the files in the first group. The second group includes more infrequent correspondents, usually general inquiries sent to libraries or archives for records relating to individuals executed or for research requests.

Please see Series 3: Capital Punishment Research Project for correspondence specifically relating to Espy’s work at the University of Alabama School of Law and the National Science Foundation grant and Series 6: Biographical Materials for correspondence related to some of Espy’s publications, testimony, speaking events, and signed portrait and autograph collection.

BoxFolderContentsDate

15fe8726e76781d6e938a7537c1627c5

55 1Abbott, Jack1981

b742ba3b3cc9ec838540962efba91c49

55 2Agresti, David, University of South Florida1981, 1984-1987

5fa73df06e450a7bedfc28ab58afd127

55 3Agresti, David, University of South Florida1988

7e3e8563b7ae159a2db00929e304a246

55 4Agresti, David, University of South Florida1988, 1996

180d6cdb3a43360bc618f9af925f9df9

55 5Allen, Howard, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale1995-1996

f7979e17071c9f409cf83ec7701a4593

55 6Alabama closed1974-1980, 1982-1986

9e4c537a30e4ac38fe8156a30c49fd40

55 7Alabama Coalition Against the Death Penalty1983-1984, Undated

2c54bdd855c7cc91cdd6f5ece774e403

55 8Alabama legislature1981

5362f1f6704ee54803d2ecdc8099d8d8

55 9Alabama outstanding1976-1979, 1981-1986

5b08c6cf743300fd527d6fd206dcc54b

55 10Alabama Peace Officers' Association1981

24de070c3944b27f7e2d928fbdba2fdc

55 11Alabama Prison Project1980, 1982-1987, 1989, 1997, Undated

b9c65202d34e9e75829be1f8ec012e02

55 12Alaska1977, 1986

121d32ba0172445c2256d3d2218e2aa5

55 13Amnesty International, Austrian Section1985

b6c8fb5856ebf307bb42e6626f6e80c4

55 14Amnesty International USA1988-1989, 1991, 1993

2c4c402c7d077afbf01ae14773b430bf

55 15Andrews, George, Congress of the United States1962, 1964, 1968-1969

0c71690210fa026fe3e1b5daab8c366d

55 16The Angolite, Louisiana State Prison, William Rideaux and Ronald Wikberg1987-1992, 1995, Undated

2315784b0d25537f44ff17d05153cacc

55 17Arizona closed1974, 1977, 1979, 1981-1984

ae667ad682ce438da6b196c9ff3b6f4f

55 18Arizona open1977, 1980-1982, 1984

c0414b7e27172113efae348a6d760a32

55 19Arkansas closed1974-1977, 1979, 1981-1984, 1986

9e4b06895d3aecb0a19442c6a0d35881

55 20Arkansas outstanding1976-1978, 1981-1982, 1985

4798dbee8241de993f385c8969e56013

55 21The Atlanta Constitution, Tom Teppen, Bill Shipp1985-1986

23ab092927c055e0dbc711b6d020f072

55 22Bailey, William C., Cleveland State University1984, 1986

223b535f3d203524e2601a65773f5a30

55 23Barnard, William, University of Alabama1982, 1984

d59d7834455aca969e4e80b0281e3abb

55 24Beatty, Sam, Justice- Supreme Court of Alabama1985-1986

4e7f7919d979779c6a3e1827d7c905e0

55 25Bedau, Hugo1980-1983

38a6e5795c72a5cebaaf7ef96ee75af0

55 26Bedau, Hugo1984-1989

0106edfeeb0df5c479f819930428bd9e

55 27Bedau, HugoUndated

c8bd7b668373eda45535c20c3f77f144

55 28Bevill, Tom, Congress of the United States, House of Representatives1986

9d9c1cd49d551b60015d513b015925a4

55 29Bexar County, Texas, District clerk1978-1980

ba6acf4b4386f8c9969ea018322db0fe

55 30Biffle, Kent, Dallas Morning News1995-1996

8917bc0fdde1140ec962d663a48bb551

55 31Blackwelder, Robert E., Wallace Community College1984-1985, 1988, 1992

39c68e6676d844b48faad63819af8281

55 32Blaine, Quentin1987

7f3b590daac1e644ca3dd8ad6abe509d

55 33Bowers, William, Northeastern University1984-1986

2e95566db7e7efc084e5d9ad35a3554b

55 34Bray, Bendard, Talladega College1983, 1989, Undated

577a311e0b3ae6e65c4111bbca18c61d

55 35Buffalo and Erie County Public Library1978-1979

735e659c72a6d8a43b1078920bc1ec85

55 36Bushwhacker Museum, Vernon County (MS) Historical Society1977

0348da8a50e2e9ea0940d85f0ff6834e

55 37California Appellate Project, Allen Hopper, Michael Millman, Lisa Short1983-1989, 1991, 2001

96a23296be21876c84c92a58a22b4cfc

55 38California closed1974-1977, 1979-1983, 1985-1986

518fc30cc4dd94b75d0506714eeb4a3b

55 39California outstanding1976-1978, 1981-1984

7e0b93a71a93eaeabf27d72427ad0b5d

55 40Callahan, Harriet, Louisiana State Library1986

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55 41Callahan, Marguerite1975-1977, 1979-1980, Undated

340a350c737153b6f2314cebfba7f79e

55 42Capital Collateral Representative, Ken Driggs, Michael Mello Larry Helm Spalding, Terry Farley Walsh1985, 1990-1992

432cae225192f883c71bb785f88f58e3

55 43Capital Collateral Representative, Ken Driggs, Larry Helm Spalding, Terry Farley Walsh1992-1993

3a22113e35b43f9db7c3a930b2e80864

55 44Christianson, Scott1982, 1983, 1985

79398a1629cb0c80f300b538d4319ed9

55 45Chattanooga Public Library1974-1975

057302ab68d7d3e2b155bf5e0bc2d23b

55 46Clemency Requests and Related Correspondence1979-1980, 1983-1988, 1994, Undated

ad5078c200544619a55f5f0410e71d82

55 47Committee Against Executions, Valda Winsloe Restrepo1981

de3f4b2195853a2d50ecee03b36e8cc7

55 48Commonwealth of Kentucky, Department of Public Advocacy1986, 1989

811839d28876146eca5f32ba339a5d15

55 49Conyers, John, Congress of the United States, House of Representatives1985-1987

640f591fe90dd13f332d8b48fffb251f

56 1Cook, Kerry Max1988-1989

17f289298b4f9fea551573a0bee0d949

56 2 The Courier- Journal/ The Louisville Times 1987

576e7d614d3946efaeb3497ee477795b

56 3CURE, Charles Sullivan1985-1986, 1989, 1995, 1999, 2002

9501cc8f62bc8326d3a161aba29dec19

56 4Dallas Public Library1982

f797445246eadfd783667a01f828aa1e

56 5Death Penalty Information Center1993, 2000

c69252e12155c000f54649708ce42a67

56 6Dent, Rick1983, 1985, Undated

1987d423101ad845099a3b6f03537caa

56 7Denton, Jeremiah, Congress of the United States, Senate1985-1986

38c1abb5e0aea25aab7250d67409a03c

56 8Dickson, William, Congress of the United States, House of Representatives1976, 1979

4f521da6cfb6d0301dfe24e794fc8f6c

56 9Dicks, Shirley1985, 1989, 2001, Undated

bc95095d35af151c7ebb20a641760faf

56 10Erdahl, Bishop Lowell1985-1986

f11e6507ae7a7a6cdbbc58b731c07fac

56 11Eastern Shore Public Library1976-1977, 1979, 1983

94a57e6979b19bd9da9bdfbb3c173606

56 12Equal Justice Initiative of Alabama1995, 1998

288a27d8797fdfca3104cb379d8cfa96

56 13Fairchild, Halford, University of California1986

f5641b938e5fc261d0b051ea0488d373

56 14Fayette County (TN)Historian1977, 1979

e47bbd9fde344063094219ea9226a9db

56 15Feingold, Russell, Congress of the United States, Senate2001

ef9c45ce7221e784bbd49d3cd423cd2c

56 16Flippo, Ronnie, Congress of the United States, House of Representatives1986, 1989

4d900b721febb0c12bc4dd5fc8bc7108

56 17Foster, Burk, The University of Southwestern Louisiana1990

aa5acbfb894fc6e6dc19a0d9b4332741

56 18Foster, Burk, The University of Southwestern Louisiana1996, 1999-2000

71c0b66f6c577ca312c1f646eaa00206

56 19Frazier, Harriet, Central Missouri State University1985-1988

0d0d35bc25d28827e74853f0457fa79b

56 20Frazier, Harriet, Central Missouri State University1989-1990

b22ace6d0dc4b1094531ae1b421ca7e8

56 21Frazier, Harriet, Central Missouri State University1991-1994, 2001, Undated

c4b6f68c58805045923e3a9b308b4396

56 22Gautier, Benard1984

33fff9be4585041d8d7d83694f7bc0f0

56 23Geimer, William, Washington and Lee University1985-1990, Undated

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56 24Gillespie, Kay1985-1986

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