1400 Washington AveAlbanyNY
1400 Washington AveAlbanyNY

Alvin Ford Papers

1965-1995

PDF Version

Abstract

This collection documents the seventeen-year period (1974-1991) concerning the Florida capital punishment case of Alvin Ford. The collection primarily contains the court records and research material of Ford's attorney, Laurin A. Wollan, Jr., as well as other members of the Ford defense team who began work on the case in 1981. The legal records include official court proceedings from the initial trial in 1974, appeals, attempts at clemency, and several cases by Ford against the Florida Department of Corrections. Other legal records include psychological reports, background reports, biographies of Ford, as well as his prison and medical records.

Summary

Creator:
Ford, Alvin Bernard, -1991
Date Coverage:
1965-1995
Quantity:
5.4 cubic ft. (about 5.4 boxes)  1 video processed to date

Alvin Bernard Ford (1953-1991) was convicted of first-degree murder in the slaying of a police officer in a failed robbery attempt in Florida on July 21, 1974. Ford entered prison at the age of 20 and was sentenced to die by electrocution in two separate criminal proceedings. He remained on death row until his death of natural causes on February 28, 1991 at the age of 37.

Ford was fighting depression and a drug addiction when he became involved in a robbery attempt at a Red Lobster restaurant in Ft. Lauderdale Florida in 1974. Ford's three accomplices left him at the scene with police approaching. In a panicked state, Ford chose to escape by taking the car of a police officer who was not aware of the severity of the situation when he arrived alone. Ford shot the officer twice in the abdomen and once in the back of the head while retrieving the officer's car keys. After being apprehended at his mother's home in Gainesville, Florida, Ford spent his first six years in prison under normal health conditions. In late 1981, at the end of the appeals process and within hours of his execution, Ford's mental condition deteriorated dramatically. For the next nine years he moved in and out of schizophrenia, which finally developed into sustained psychosis by the time his second death warrant was signed in 1984.

The Alvin Ford case was lengthy in part because of the questions that had not been answered adequately until his case was brought before the U.S. Supreme Court. The U.S. Supreme Court's verdict in the Ford case brought stricter guidelines than previously existed for determining if someone is mentally fit to defend himself in trial and whether the mentally ill should receive the death penalty. Capital punishment experts Kent S. Miller and Michael L. Radelet have written of the impact the Ford v. Wainwright decision had on the treatment of mentally ill prisoners on death row saying, "Alvin Ford made history as the man who forced the criminal justice authorities, lawyers, judges, politicians, mental heath professionals, and a host of others to seriously debate the question of what types of mental illness should exempt condemned prisoners from execution and how (and by whom) these life-and-death determinations should be made," according to Kent Millar and Michael Radelet, in their book, Executing the Mentally Ill: The Criminal Justice System and the Case of Alvin Ford

The legal process of taking Ford's capital punishment case from arrest to execution in Florida involved many opportunities for him to appeal to circuit courts of appeal, the U.S. and Florida Supreme Courts, and the governor. After Ford's arrest on July 21, 1974, he was tried in December 1974, sentenced in early 1975, and after appeals to the Supreme Courts of Florida and the United States, received his first death warrant signed by Governor Bob Graham on November 4, 1981. The scheduled execution date was December 8, 1981. Fourteen hours before the scheduled execution Ford was granted a stay of execution by the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals in Atlanta. After further psychiatric evaluations, the governor's committee decided he was competent for execution and signed his second death warrant on April 30, 1984 with a scheduled execution date of May 31, 1984. Once again, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals stepped in fourteen hours before Ford's scheduled execution and granted another stay of execution. When Ford's case was brought before the United States Supreme Court, it ruled on June 26, 1986 that the Eighth Amendment prohibits states from inflicting the death penalty upon prisoners who are insane and found that Florida's procedures for determining sanity had failed to adequately protect Ford's rights. Ford's sanity was not decided, however, and this led to a trial in early 1989 that found Ford competent for execution. The decision by a subsequent appeal to the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals was never passed down because Ford was found dead in his cell due to adult respiratory distress syndrome associated with fulminant acute pancreatitis on February 2, 1991.

The Ford case occurred at a time in the history of capital punishment in the United States of a resurgence in a get-tough-on-crime attitude embraced by politicians who pointed, in part, to their stand on the death penalty as evidence that they were tough on crime. This period began during the Nixon administration with some critical changes in the legal system that made capital punishment legal once again in the United States. The U.S. Supreme Court's decision in the Ford case set an important precedent since, up until the case, there were no clear-cut protections shielding the mentally ill from execution. The ruling took the final decision out of an individual governor's hands through clemency hearings and placed it within the court system.

This collection documents the seventeen year period (1974-1991) concerning the Florida capital punishment case of Alvin Ford. The collection primarily contains the court records and research material of Ford's attorney, Laurin A. Wollan, Jr., as well as other members of the Ford defense team who began work on the case in 1981. The legal records include official court proceedings from the initial trial in 1974, appeals, attempts at clemency, and several cases by Ford against the Florida Department of Corrections. Other legal records include psychological reports, background reports, biographies of Ford, as well as his prison and medical records.

Several participants are represented in the collection over the case's duration. Robert Adams represented Ford from his initial trial until his appeal to the Florida Supreme Court was denied on July 18, 1979. A community organizer from the Florida Clearing House on Criminal Justice, Scharlette Holdman, located a volunteer lawyer, Deborah Fins, to represent Ford in his petition for certiorari to the U.S. Supreme Court and continued to consult for the Ford case over the next 10 years. After his certiorari case was denied, Holdman and Deborah Fins recruited a more experienced lawyer, Laurin A. Wollan, to represent Ford in his 1981 clemency hearings. Wollan took the case pro bono and continued to work on Ford's behalf over the next 10 years. Wollan was a 1962 graduate of the University of Chicago Law School. He served as a state's attorney in Illinois, spent four years with the U.S. Department for Justice, and was a member of the Florida State University faculty beginning in 1976. Although he was a death penalty supporter and a former prosecutor, his compassion for Ford's circumstance led him to accept the case on a pro bono basis. The size and scope of the files he created reveal Wollan's efforts on Ford's behalf, for example, as Ford's clemency hearing quickly approached in mid-1981, he was without legal representation. Wollan was asked to take the case and over the next six weeks, from August through October, he worked solely on the Ford case as he struggled to acquaint himself with the details of the case. Attorney Richard Burr joined Wollan in volunteering to represent Ford just as Ford's first execution approached in 1981. Both remained on the Ford case until his death. A number of state officials are found throughout the case's legal documents including: Florida Governor Bob Graham who had the power to grant clemency to Ford; circaE. "Sonny" Strickland who was superintendent of the Florida State Prison; and Louie Wainwright and Richard Dugger who were Secretaries of the Department of Corrections for the State of Florida.

Ford's attorneys collected many articles, pamphlets, and publications on the subject of the death penalty. The research material in this collection represents many organizations, most of which oppose the death penalty. These include the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, National Coalition Against the Death Penalty, ACLU, Florida Clearing House on Criminal Justice, Amnesty International, Institute for Southern Studies, Florida Citizens Against the Death Penalty, and the Florida Conference Against Death Penalty. The collection also reveals the sentiment of these anti-death penalty groups during a time of resurgent support for the death penalty. The news clippings are a comprehensive part of the research material covering many death penalty cases in Florida spanning two decades.

The collection contains court records from at least six specific trials and many other appeals and motions that, besides chronicling the case, demonstrate one of the arguments which many anti-death penalty advocates utilize, that a death penalty case costs more than a sentence of life imprisonment. The collection is strongly enhanced by a separate collection of news clippings that directly relate to the Ford case. These news clippings are very helpful in understanding how the case developed.

While the collection contains a variety of records covering not only the legal aspects of the case, but also Ford himself, and presents a thorough example of the nature of representing a death penalty defendant, it is understandably limited to death penalty issues as they relate to the state of Florida. The implications, however, of the Supreme Court ruling on the Ford case in 1986, that a mentally ill prisoner cannot be executed and the resultant change in Florida and other states' laws concerning the process of identifying mentally ill prisoners, is what makes this collection so valuable.

Additional material for the Alvin Ford Collection was received from Michael Radelet in January 2006. This material is not yet inventoried in this finding aid.

Related collections in the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives can be found at the web site for the National Death Penalty Archive.

The collection is organized into the following series:

  • Series 1 - Legal Records, 1974-1991, 3.8 cubic ft., arranged alphabetically.
  • Series 2 - Defense Team Research Material, 1972-1995, 1.26 cubic ft., arranged by size and alphabetically thereafter
  • Series 3 - Correspondence, 1970-1990, .17 cubic ft., arranged alphabetically
  • Series 4 - Alvin Ford Biographical, 1965-1993, .17 cubic ft., arranged chronologically

All items in this manuscript group were donated to the University Libraries, M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, by Laurin A. Wollan, Jr. in June 2003. An additional as yet unprocessed accession was received from Michale Radelet in January 2006.

Processed by: Rob Taglianetti in 2013.

Collection record created by: Yvonne Kester

Published: 2013

Archival materials can be view in-person during business hours in our reading room, located on the top floor of the Science Library on the Uptown Campus.

We can also deliver digital scans for remote research for a fee.

Access to this record group is unrestricted.

Copyright Statement

The researcher assumes full responsibility for conforming with the laws of copyright. Whenever possible, the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives will provide information about copyright owners and other restrictions, but the legal determination ultimately rests with the researcher. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be discussed with the Head of Special Collections and Archives.

Preferred citation for this material is as follows:

Identification of specific item, series, box, folder, Alvin Ford Papers, 1965-1995. M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, University Libraries, University at Albany, State University of New York (hereafter referred to as [shortened name]).

Contents of Collection

Quantity: 3.8 cubic ft. (about 3.8 boxes)
Arranged alphabetically.
This series contains legal records that are mostly official court proceedings of the Alvin Ford cases covering a period of seventeen years. These cases include State of Florida v. Ford: 1974, which covers the original trial court proceedings. Later cases that bear the same style relate to later attempts of Ford on a motion for post conviction relief and stay of execution in 1981 and a second attempt in 1987. Ford v. State of Florida:1975-1988, Ford v. Strickland et al.: 1981-1984, Ford v. Wainwright: 1981-1988, and Ford v. Dugger: 1986-1991 all represent the trial cases Ford's attorneys filed against a succession of superintendents of the Florida State Prison and secretaries of the Department of Corrections. Other proceedings include multiple trials, pleas, motions, hearings, testimonies, and appeals. Other legal records are background studies on Ford that include detailed psychiatric evaluations, medical and prison records, case summaries, and undated notes by Laurin Wollan.
BoxFolderContentsDate

nam_apap159-1_1

11Argument for Insanityca. 1984-1986

nam_apap159-1_2

12Attorney Notes1974-1991

nam_apap159-1_3

13Attorney Notes1974-1991

nam_apap159-1_4

14Attorney Notes1974-1991

nam_apap159-1_5

15Attorney Notes1974-1991

nam_apap159-1_6

16Autopsy Testimony, Medical Examiner1974

nam_apap159-1_7

17Background Report, Ford1974-1981

nam_apap159-1_8

18Biography, Ford1981

nam_apap159-1_9

19Case Summaries, Ford1981

nam_apap159-1_10

110Clemency Hearing1981

nam_apap159-1_11

111Death Warrant, Ford1981

nam_apap159-1_12

112Deposition of Witnesses1981

nam_apap159-1_13

113Ford v. Dugger1986-1988

nam_apap159-1_14

114Ford v. Dugger1988

nam_apap159-1_15

115Ford v. Dugger1988

nam_apap159-1_16

116Ford v. Dugger1988

nam_apap159-1_17

117Ford v. Dugger1988

nam_apap159-1_18

118Ford v. Dugger1989-1991

nam_apap159-1_19

119Ford v. State of Florida1975-1977

nam_apap159-1_20

21Ford v. State of Florida1979-1981

nam_apap159-1_21

22Ford v. State of Florida1981

nam_apap159-1_22

23Ford v. State of Florida1981

nam_apap159-1_23

24Ford v. State of Florida1984-1988

nam_apap159-1_24

25Ford v. Strickland et al.1981

nam_apap159-1_25

26Ford v. Strickland et al.1981

nam_apap159-1_26

27Ford v. Strickland et al.1981

nam_apap159-1_27

28Ford v. Strickland et al.1982

nam_apap159-1_28

29Ford v. Strickland et al.1982

nam_apap159-1_29

210Ford v. Strickland et al.1982

nam_apap159-1_30

211Ford v. Strickland et al.1982

nam_apap159-1_31

212Ford v. Strickland et al.1982

nam_apap159-1_32

213Ford v. Strickland et al.1982

nam_apap159-1_33

214Ford v. Strickland et al.1983

nam_apap159-1_34

215Ford v. Strickland et al.1983

nam_apap159-1_35

216Ford v. Strickland et al.1983

nam_apap159-1_36

217Ford v. Strickland et al.1984

nam_apap159-1_37

31Ford v. Wainwright1981-1984

nam_apap159-1_38

32Ford v. Wainwright1984

nam_apap159-1_39

33Ford v. Wainwright1984

nam_apap159-1_40

34Ford v. Wainwright1984

nam_apap159-1_41

35Ford v. Wainwright1984-1985

nam_apap159-1_42

36Ford v. Wainwright1985

nam_apap159-1_43

37Ford v. Wainwright1985

nam_apap159-1_44

38Ford v. Wainwright1985-1986

nam_apap159-1_45

39Ford v. Wainwright1986

nam_apap159-1_46

310Ford v. Wainwright1987-1988

nam_apap159-1_47

311Interview Transcript, Wollan and Ford1983

nam_apap159-1_48

312Prison Medical Records1975-1989

nam_apap159-1_49

313Prison Record1981

nam_apap159-1_50

314Proceedings to Determine Sanity1983

nam_apap159-1_51

315Proceedings to Determine Sanity1983

nam_apap159-1_52

316Psychiatric Reports1975-1988

nam_apap159-1_53

317Social and Criminal History1981

nam_apap159-1_54

41State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_55

42State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_56

43State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_57

44State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_58

45State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_59

46State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_60

47State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_61

48State of Florida v. Ford1974

nam_apap159-1_62

49State of Florida v. Ford1981

nam_apap159-1_63

410State of Florida v. Ford1981

nam_apap159-1_64

411State of Florida v. Ford1981

nam_apap159-1_65

412State of Florida v. Ford1981

nam_apap159-1_66

413State of Florida v. Ford1981
Quantity: 1.26 cubic ft. (about 1.26 boxes)
Arranged by size and alphabetically thereafter.
This series contains the research material that Ford's defense team accumulated over the course of their representation of Ford and includes research material from years prior to and after the case. This series contains notes on cases in progress as well as some material from related cases. There are newsletters, briefings, pamphlets, bulletins, essays, reports, and publications which discuss anti-death penalty and related legal issues. Also included are photocopies of selections from various undated publications about the death penalty. This series represents literature from a wide spectrum of death penalty abolitionists. Several folders contain news clippings organized by year that give a good overview of related death penalty cases and issues. Many of the news clippings were photocopied before deposit in the Department of Special Collections and Archives, while others required preservation photocopying. Also of note are several papers on death penalty issues written by professors and others representing law schools and universities in the United States.
BoxFolderContentsDate

nam_apap159-2_1

11Death Penalty, News Clippings1972-1980

nam_apap159-2_2

12Death Penalty, News Clippings1981-1983

nam_apap159-2_3

13Death Penalty, News Clippings1984

nam_apap159-2_4

14Death Penalty, News Clippings1985-1987

nam_apap159-2_5

15Death Penalty, News Clippings1988-1995

nam_apap159-2_6

16Death Penalty, Newsletters1980-1989

nam_apap159-2_7

21Death Penalty, Publicationsca. 1974-1990

nam_apap159-2_8

22Ineffectiveness Case1980-1981

nam_apap159-2_9

23Race and Death Penalty in Florida, Report1984

nam_apap159-2_10

31Bibliography, Death Penalty Publications1986

nam_apap159-2_11

32Capitol Punishment, National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin1978-1984

nam_apap159-2_12

33Capitol Punishment, National Prisoner Statistics Bulletin1974-1976

nam_apap159-2_13

34Death Penalty, Briefing, Amnesty International1986

nam_apap159-2_14

35Death Penalty, Cases, Other1981-1989

nam_apap159-2_15

36Death Penalty, Essays1977-1989

nam_apap159-2_16

37Death Penalty, Journals1983-1986

nam_apap159-2_17

38Death Penalty, Pamphlets1978-1990

nam_apap159-2_18

39Death Penalty, Legal Procedures1978

nam_apap159-2_19

310Death Penalty, Publicationsca. 1974-1990

nam_apap159-2_20

41Death Penalty, Publicationsca. 1974-1990

nam_apap159-2_21

42Death Penalty, Publicationsca. 1974-1990

nam_apap159-2_22

43Death Penalty, Publicationsca. 1974-1990

nam_apap159-2_23

44Death Penalty, Publicationsca. 1974-1990

nam_apap159-2_24

45Death Penalty, Publications, Reports1980-1986

nam_apap159-2_25

46Death Penalty, Research Papers1980-1990

nam_apap159-2_26

47Death Penalty, Research Papers, Michael Radelet1981-1985
Quantity: 0.17 cubic ft. (about 0.17 boxes)
Arranged alphabetically.
This series contains correspondence organized alphabetically by type (sent/received) and by year within each folder. A folder containing character references is noteworthy. These character references were written between late June and early August of 1981, around the time of Ford's parole hearings and clemency case. They are written by his mother, brother, teachers, and friends of the family who knew Ford all of his life. They testify that Ford was a normal, above-average individual who none believed was bent toward murder. Of particular significance is a letter from one of Ford's teachers, Richard Curtis, who said Ford was a model teenager even winning an award for a science project. Correspondence received by Ford are mostly carbon copies retained by Wollan of letters he had sent to Ford. Letters sent by Ford are not represented in this series since they are located within a set of legal papers used in a trial to prove Ford's sanity. They are located in Series One in the folder, Proceedings to Determine Sanity. The General Correspondence folder contains letters that list Laurin Wollan as the recipient of carbon copies, but are not addressed to or from Wollan. Correspondence received by Wollan are usually letters from fellow lawyers and the folders of correspondence sent are carbon copies retained by Wollan that he sent to various individuals.
BoxFolderContentsDate

nam_apap159-3_1

11Ford, Received1981-1988

nam_apap159-3_2

12General1981-1990

nam_apap159-3_3

13Wollan, Received1981-1990

nam_apap159-3_4

14Wollan, Sent1981-1988
Quantity: 0.17 cubic ft. (about 0.17 boxes)
Arranged chronologically.
This series contains newspaper and magazine articles, most of which are photocopied, about the Ford case. This series also contains a folder related to Ford's death and funeral. Also represented are a small collection of photographs of Ford at various ages and photographs of his attorneys. There is a short note from Connie Ford, Alvin's mother, to Attorney Wollan concerning a video of the Ford funeral, which is also contained in this collection. The most important resource in this series is the news clippings, which are very helpful in following the progression of the Ford case. The news clippings cover most major events in the Ford case. In addition to collecting news clippings, Laurin Wollan had an assistant visit Gainesville, Florida, where Ford was apprehended, and the assistant photocopied all articles from area papers that reported on the Ford story from 1974 to 1975.
BoxFolderContentsDate

nam_apap159-4_1

11Ford, Character References1981

nam_apap159-4_2

12Death of Alvin Ford1991

nam_apap159-4_3

13Ford, Connie, Correspondence1991

nam_apap159-4_4

14News Clippings1974-1981

nam_apap159-4_5

15News Clippings1982-1992

nam_apap159-4_6

16Photographs1965-1993

nam_apap159-4_7

VHS 1Ford Funeral VHS Video1991